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ST220- Test 3

Infectious Process

TermDefinition
Examples of modes of transmissions (1) Direct- light handle drops into open wound. Indirect- bioburden on gloves contaminates equipment that is handled by ungloved person who rubs eyes.
Asepsis Absence of pathogenic microorganisms
Aseptic principles principles applied through use of sterile techniques to prevent microbial contamination of the surgical environment
Bacteriocidal substance that destroys/kills bacteria
Bacteriostatic substance that inhibits the growth and reproduction of bacteria
Examples of modes of transmission (2) Droplet- Infection spread through the air by droplets spread by sneezing, couching or talking. Airborne spread- infection spread though the air by sneezing droplets Common Vechicle Spread- vector borne
Bioburden the number of microbes or amount of organic debris on an object at any given time
Contamination the presence of pathogenic materials
Cross-contamination the contamination of a person or object by another
decontamination to reduce to an irreducible minimum the presence of pathogenic material
Disinfectant chemical agent that kills most microbes, but usually not spores; usually used on inanimate objects because these compounds are too strong to be used on living tissue
Event-related sterility sterility determined by how a package is handled rather than time elapsed; a package is considered sterile until opened or the integrity of packaging material is damaged
Fomite inanimate object that harbors microorganisms
Fungicide agent that destroys fungus
Infection invasion of the human body or tissue by pathogenic microorganisms that reproduce and multiply, causing disease
Nosocomial infection acquired within a health care facility
Pathogen any microbe capable of causing disease
Resident flora microbes that normally reside below the skin surface or within the body
Sepsis infection, usually accompanied by fever, that results from the presence of pathogenic mircoorganisms
spore a resistant form of certain types of bacteria that are able to survive in adverse conditions
sproricide substance that kills/destroys bacteria in the spore stage
sterile field specified area, usually the area immediately around the patient, that is considered free of microorganisms
sterile technique techniques of creating a sterile field and performing within the sterile field to keep microbes at an irreducible minimum
strike-through contamination contamination of a sterile field that occurs through the passage of fluid through, or a puncture in, a microbial barrier
surgically clean mechanically cleaned and chemically disinfected but not sterile
terminal disinfection to render items safe to handle by high-level disinfection
terminal sterilization to render items safe to handle by sterilization
transient flora microbes that reside on the skin surface and are easily removed
vector living carrier that transmits disease
virucide agent that destroys viruses
Risk factors that increase SSI's age, obesity, carries of staph A or MRSA, general health, remote infections, preexisting illness, preoperative hospitalization
disease abnormal state in which all or part of the body does not function correctly
etiology cause or origin of the disease
idiopathic self-originating/without known cause
incidence range of occurrence and tendency to affect certain groups (ex. gender, geographical location)
acute severe but usually short lasting
chronic less severe but long lasting or recurring
subacute less severe than acute and/or not as long as chronic
communicable can be transmitted from one indiviaual to another
epidemic affects many people in the same region at the same time
endemic continuously affects some people in a particular region
pandemic prevalent throughout an entire country, continent, or the world
community acquired infection an infection contracted outside of a health care setting or an infection present on admission.
diagnosis conclusion as to the nature of the disease
symptoms conditions noted by the patient (subjective)
signs conditions noted by the health care provider (objective)
tests factual information concerning the patient (ex. lab studies, diagnostic images)
syndrome a group of signs and symptoms that accompany a particular disease
prognosis prediction of the probable outcome of the disease (based on the condition of the patient and the expectant course of the disease)
pathogenesis development of a disease due to a pathologic, physiologic, biochemical, or biomechanical mechanism
classic signs of inflammation pain heat redness swelling loss of function
classic systemic sign of infammation FEVER
Immunity power of an individual to resist or overcome the effects of a particular disease( final line of defense)
Critical Items items that will be used for invasive procedures or vascular access and carry a high potential for causing SSI's include: surgical instruments, devices that enter the vascular or urinary systems, implantable items
Semi-critical items items that come into contact with mucous membranes or non-intact skin carry a lesser risk of infection due to the properties of resistance of intact mucosal linings to many commonly encountered bacterial spores. ex. laryngoscopes, anesthesia
non-critical items items that come into contact with a pt's intact skin and clean environmental equipment items pose that least risk of infection. ex. blood pressure cuff, pulse ox, or transport stretchers
disinfection destruction of pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins or vectors by direct exposure to chemical or physical agents
antisepsis a process in which most buy not all microorganisms located on animate surfaces, such as the skin, are destroyed
antispetic name used to describe the solutions that are used by the sterile surgical team members to perform the surgical scrub and are used on the pt for skin preparation of the surgical site
sterilization destruction of all microorganisms in or about an object with steam, including spores on inanimate surfaces
Created by: candj0709 on 2014-07-09



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