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heart a hollow, muscular organ taht pumps blood through the arteries, capillaries, and veins
shunt a passage between two blood vessels or between two sides of the heart
arteriole a small artery
venule a small vein
tricuspid valve a valve with three cusps, located bwteeen the right atrium and right ventricle, which allows blood to pass into the right ventricle
bicuspid valve (Mitral) a valve with two cusps, through which blood passes from the left atrium to the left ventricle aka mitral valve
vein a vessel that carries deoxygenated blood to the hear from the body organs and tissues
artery a vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to body tissues and organs
thrombosis abnormal condition of a blood clot in the blood vessel and obstructs it at the site of its formation
diuretics act on kineys to increase excretion of water and sodium
aortography angiography of the aorta and its branches after injection of a contrast medium
coronary angiography angiography that is used to dtermine the degree of stenosis or obstruction of the arteries taht supply the blood to the heart
PTCA (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) angioplasty of the coronary arteries in which a balloon catheter is inserted through the skin into the right femoral artery and threaded to the site of the stenosis to enlarge the lumen of the artery and restore forward blood flow
CAD (coronary artery disease) any disease which alters the ability of the coronary artery to deliver theamout of blood that is required by the heart muscle
angioplasty any endovascular procedure that reopens narrowed blood vessels and restores forward blood flow
bradycardia arrhythmia in which the heart beats abnormally slowly, usually fewer than 60 beats per minute in a resting adult
tachycardia arrhythmia in which there is a fast but regular rhythm, with the heart possibly beating up to 200 beats/minute
fibrillation arrhythmia in which there is an abnormally rapid, uncoordinated quivering of the myocardium that can affect the atria or the ventricles
heart block arrhythmia in which there is interference with the normal transmission of electric impulses from the SA node to the Purkinje fibers
regurgitation backflow or ejecting of contents through an opening
calcium channel blockers block movement of calcium into myocardial cells and arterial walls, causing heart rate and blood pressure to decrease
beta blockers block the effect of adrenaline on beta receptors, which slow nerve pulses taht pass through the heart, thereby causing a decrease heart rate
DVT (deep vein thrombosis) blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body, especially those in the legs or thighs; also called deep venous thrombosis
cardiac enzyme studies blood test that measuress the presence and amount of cardiac enzymes in the blood including troponin T, troponin I, and creatine kinase
pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood back to the heart from the lungs
right atrium chamber which collectws deoxygenated blood from the body
right ventricle chamber which pumps deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs
left atrium chamber which receives oxygenated blood from the lungs
left ventricle chamber which pumps oxygenated blood to the body via the aorta
endocardium innermost layer of the heart
sphygmomanometer instrument for measuring blood pressure
arrhythmia irregularity in the rate or rhythm of the heart; also called dysrhythmia
inferior vena cava large vein which collects and carries deoxygenated blood from the lower portion of the body and enters the right atrium
superior vena cava large vein which collects and carries deoxygenated blood blood from the top portion of the body and enters the right atrium
aorta largest artery in the body which collects blood from the left ventricle, and delivers it to all parts of the body via smaller arteries
MI-myocardial infarction life threatening condition characterized by necrosis in the myocardium due to a lack of oxygen
ischemia local, temporary deficiency f blood supply to an organ or tissue due to circulatory obstruction
aneurysm localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery
infarction localized tissue necrosis due to the cessation of blood supply
hypotension low blood pressure persistently lower than 90/60 mm Hg
angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE inhibitors lower blood pressure by inhibiting the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II
statins lower cholesterol in the blood and reduces its production in the liver by blocking the enzyme that produces it
capillaries microscopic blood vessels connecting arterioles and venules
angina mild to severe suffocating pain that typically occurs in the chest and is caused by an inadequate blood flow to the myocardium; also called angina pectoris, intermittent chest pain usually short duration
SPECT-single-photon emission computer tomography MUGA scan of the heart in which the gamma camera moves in a circle around patient to create individual images as "slices" of the heart
myocardium muscular layer of the heart
septum muscular wall which divides the right and left sides of the heart
stenosis narrowing
coarctation narrowing of a vessel, especially the aorta
carotid artery disease narrowing of the carotid arteries, usually caused by atherosclerosis; may eventually lead to thrombus formation and stroke
vasoconstriction narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel that limits blood flow, usually as a result of diseases, medication of physiological process
MRI-magnetic resonance imaging non-invasive technique that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field, rather than an x-ray beam, to produce highly detailed, multiplanar cross-sectional view of soft tissues
MUGA - multiple-gated acquisition scan nuclear procedure that uses radioactive tracers to detect how well the heart walls move as they contract and calculates the ejection fraction rate
epicardium outermost layer of the heart
pallor paleness
syncope partial or complete loss of consciousness that is usually caused by a decrease supply of blood to the brain; also called fainting
CC - cardiac catheterization passage of a catheter into the heart through a vein or artery to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the heart
stent (placement) placement of a mesh tube inserted into a natural passage or conduit in the body to prevent or counteract a disease-induced, localized flow constriction
CABG coronary artery bypass graft placement of a vessel graft from another part of the body to bypass the blocked part of a coronary artery and restore blood supply to the heart muscle
sphincter circular muscle found in a tubular structure of hollow organ that constricts or dilates to regulate passage of substances through its opening
embolism condition in which a mass (commonly called a blood clot) becomes lodged in a blood vessel, obstructing blood flow
varicose veins condition which develops when the valves of the veins are damaged, characterized by enlarged veins and edema of the surrounding tissues
cardioversion defibrillation technique using low energy shocks to treat an arrhythmia, and is usually synchronized with the large R waves of the ECG complex to restore normal heart rhythm
thrombolysis destruction of a blood clot using anti-clotting agents called clot-busters, such as tissue plasminogen activator
necrosis destruction of tissue
dyspnea difficult breathing
nitrates dilated blood vessels of the heart, causing an increase in the amount of oxygen delivered to the myocardium, and decrease venous return and arterial resistance, which decreases myocardial oxygen demand and relieves angina
cardiomyopathy disease or weakening of heart muscles that diminishes cardiac function
stress test ECG taken under controlled exercise stress conditions
holter monitor test ECG taken with a small, portable recording system capable of storing up to 48 hours of ECG tracings, also called event monitor test
defibrillation electrical shock delivered randomly during the cardiac cycle to treat emergency life-threatening arrhythmias
HTN - hypertension elevated blood pressure persistently higher than 140/90 mm Hg
cardiomegaly enlargement of the heart
hyperlipidemia excessive amounts of lipids in the blood
Purkinje fibers extended up the walls of the ventricles and transmit electrical impulses to both ventricles, causing them to contract
CHF congestive heart failure failure of the heart to pump an adequate amount of blood to the tissues and organs
pericardium fibrous sac which encloses the heart
leaflet flat, leaf-shaped structure that comprises the valves of the heart and prevents backflow of blood
atherosclerosis from of arteriosclerosis characterized by the deposit of plaques containing cholesterol and lipids that narrows the lumen in the arteries
arteriosclerosis hardening and narrowing of an artery along with the loss of its elasticity
US - ultrasound high-frequency sound waves are directed at soft tissue and reflected as "echos" to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure; also called ultrasound
conductive tissue high specialized cardiac tissue which initiates and continues contraction impulses
AICD- automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillation implantation of a battery-powered device that monitors and automatically corrects ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation by sending electrical impulses to the heart in patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death;
insufficiency inability of valves to close properly
valvotomy incision of valve to increase the size of the opening; used in treating mitral stenosis
phlebitis inflammation of a deep or superficial vein of the arms or legs
thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein wall, which may cause clots to form
carditis inflammation of the heart
phlebitis inflammation of a vein
sclerotherapy injection of a chemical irritant into a vein to produce inflammation and fibrosis that destroys the lumen of the vein
ANS - autonomic nervous system portion of the nervous system that regulates involuntary actions, such as heart rate, digestion and peristalsis
antiarrhythmics prevent, alleviate, or correct cardiac arrhythmias by stabilizing the electrical conduction of the heart
pulmonic valve prevents the backflow of blood into the right ventricle
ECG, EKG- electrocardiogram procedure that graphically records the spread of electrical excitation to different parts of the heart using small metal electrodes applied to the chest, arms, and legs
EPS-electrophysiology studies procedure used to determine the cause of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias by mapping the heart's conduction system in a patient with an arrhythmia
laser ablation procedure used to remove or treat varicose veins
diaphoresis profuse sweating
angiography radiographic image of he inside of a blood vessel after injection of a contrast medium; aka arteriography
venography radiography of a vein after injection of a contrast medium to detect incomplete filling of a vein, indicating obstruction
tachycardia rapid heart action
vasodilators reduce blood pressure by relaxing the smooth muscle in blood vessels, particularly in the large arteries, arterioles, and large veins, which decrease vascular resistance
arterial biopsy removal of a segment of an arterial vessel wall to confirm inflammation of the wall or arteritis, a type a vasulitis
Bx - biopsy removal of a small piece of tissue for diagnostic purposes
embolectomy removal of an embolus
endarterectomy removal of fatty plaque from the interior of an occluded vessel using a specially designed catheter fitted with a cutting or grinding device
palpitation sensation of an irregular heartbeat commonly described as pounding, racing, skipping a beat of flutter
lipid panel series of blood tests (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides) used to assess risk factors of ischemic heart disease
bradycardia slow heart action
congenital septal defect small hole(s) within the atrial or ventricular septums, which are present at birth
bruit soft flowing sound heard on auscultation, associated valvular action or with the movement of blood as it passes an obstruction or both; also called a murmur
cardiac MRI specialized MRI that provides information on both static and moving images of the heart, including blood flow velocity
bundle of His specialized muscle fibres, in the walls of he heart, between the ventricles that carry the electric impulses to the ventricles
viscosity state of being sticky or gummy
MVP - mitral valve prolapse structural defect in which the mitral valve leaflets prolapse into the left atrium during ventricular contraction, resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
anastomosis surgical attachment of one end of a hollow structure to another end
open heart surgery surgical procedure performed on or within the exposed heart, usually with the assistance of a heart-lung machine
commissurotomy surgical separation of the leaflets of the mitral valve, which have fused together at their points of contact
angiorrhaphy suturing of a blood vessel
CV - cardiovascular system system composed of the heart, blood vessels and their function within the body
nuclear perfusion study test used in conjunction with a stress test to detect the presence of coronary artery disease that is causing partial obstruction of the coronary arteries
systole the contraction phase of the heart
diastole the relaxation phase of the heart
cardiac ablation treatment for cardiac arrhythmias; usually performed under fluoroscopic guidance
lumen tubular space or channel within any organ or structure of the body; space within an artery, vein, intestine, or tube
MRA - magnetic resonance angiogram (graphy) type of MRI scan that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to provide detailed images of blood vessels
ECHO-echocardiogram ultrasonography that is used to visualize internal cardiac structures, produce images of the heart, and assess cardiac output
doppler U/S ultrasonography used to assess blood flow through blood vessels and the heart
vasodilation widening of the lumen of a blood vessel caused by the relaxing of the muscles of the vascular walls
Created by: deyoht_kwa