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Yellow Module Reverse Definitions

heart A hollow, muscular organ lying in the mediastinum that pumps blood to the entire body.
shunt A passage between two blood vessels or between two sides of the heart.
arteriole A small artery.
venule A small vein.
tricuspid valve A valve with three cusps, located between the right atrium and right ventricle, which allows blood to pass into the right ventricle.
bicuspid valve A valve with two cusps, through which blood passes from the left atrium to the left ventricle. Also known as the mitral valve.
vein A vessel that carries deoxygenated blood to the heart from the body organs and tissues.
artery A vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to body tissues and organs.
thrombosis Abnormal condition of a blood clot in a blood vessel.
diuretics Act on kidneys to increase excretion of water and sodium.
aortography Angiography of the aorta and its branches after injection of a contrast medium.
coronary angiography Angiography to determine the degree of obstruction of the arteries that supply blood to the heart.
PTCA percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty Angioplasty of the coronary arteries in which a balloon catheter is inserted through the skin into the right femoral artery and threaded to the site of the stenosis to enlarge the lumen of the artery and restore forward blood flow.
CAD coronary artery disease Any disease which alters the ability of the coronary artery to deliver the amount of blood that is required by the heart muscle.
angioplasty Any endovascular procedure that reopens narrowed blood vessels and restores forward blood flow.
bradycardia Arrhythmia in which the heart beats abnormally slow, usually fewer than 60 beats per minute in a resting adult.
tachycardia Arrhythmia in which there is a fast but regular rhythm, with the heart possibly beating up to 200 beats/minute.
regurgitation Backflow or ejecting of contents through an opening.
calcium channel blockers Block movement of calcium into myocardial cells and arterial walls, causing heart rate and blood pressure to decrease.
beta-blockers (beta-blocker) Block the effect of adrenaline on beta receptor, which slow nerve pulses that pass through the heart, thereby causing a decrease heart rate and contractility.
DVT deep vein thrombosis Blood clot that forms in the deep veins of the body, especially those in the legs or thighs.
cardiac enzyme study Blood test that measures troponin T, troponin I and creatinine kinase.
pulmonary artery Carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs.
pulmonary vein Carries oxygenated blood back to the heart from the lungs.
right atrium Chamber which collects deoxygenated blood from the body.
right ventricle Chamber which pumps deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs.
left atrium Chamber which receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.
left ventricle Chamber which pumps oxygenated blood to the body via the aorta.
sphincter Circular muscle found in a tubular structure or hollow organ that constricts or dilates to regulate passage of substances through its opening.
embolism Condition in which a mass (blood clot) becomes lodged in a blood vessel, obstructing blood flow.
varicose veins Condition which develops when the valves of the veins are damaged. Characterized by enlarged veins and edema of the surrounding tissues.
thrombolysis Destruction of a blood clot using anticlotting agents called clot-busters, such as tissue plasminogen activator.
necrosis Destruction of tissue.
dyspnea Difficult breathing.
nitrates Dilate blood vessels of the heart, causing an increase in the amount of oxygen delivered to the myocardium and decrease venous return and arterial resistance, which decreases myocardial oxygen demand and relieves angina.
stress test ECG taken under controlled exercise stress conditions.
Holter monitor test ECG taken with a small portable recording system capable of storing up to 48 hours of ECG tracings, also called event monitor test.
cardiomegaly Enlargement of the heart.
hyperlipidemia Excessive amounts of lipids in the blood.
Purkinje fibers Extends up the walls of the ventricles and transmit electrical impulses to both ventricles, causing them to contract.
CHF congestive heart failure Failure of the heart to pump an adequate amount of blood to the tissues and organs.
pericardium Fibrous sac which encloses the heart.
conductive tissue Highly specialized cardiac tissue which initiates and continues contraction impulses.
AICD automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator Implantable battery-powered device that monitors and automatically corrects ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation by sending electrical impulses to the heart.
insufficiency Inability of valves to close properly.
valvotomy Incision of a valve to increase the size of the opening; used in treating mitral stenosis.
thrombophlebitis Inflammation of a vein wall, which may cause clots to form.
carditia Inflammation of the heart.
phlebitis Inflammation of a vein.
scleratherapy Injection of a chemical irritant into a vein to produce inflammation and fibrosis that destroys the lumen of the vein.
endocardium Innermost layer of the heart.
sphygmomenometer Instrument for measuring blood pressure.
inferior vena cava Large vein which collects and carries deoxygenated blood from the lower portion of the body and enters the right atrium.
superior vena cava Large vein which collects and carries deoxygenated blood from the top portion of the body and enters the right atrium.
aorta Largest artery in the body which collects blood from the left ventricle and delivers it to all parts of the body via smaller arteries.
MI myocardial infarction Life threatening condition characterized by necrosis in the myocardium due to a lack of oxygen.
ischemia Local and temporary deficiency of blood supply due to circulatory obstruction.
aneurysm Localized abnormal dilation of a vessel, usually an artery.
ACE angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitors Lower blood pressure by inhibiting the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II.
statins Lower cholesterol in the blood and reduce its production in the liver by blocking the enzyme that produces it.
capillaries Microscopic blood vessels connecting arterioles and ventricles.
myocardium Muscular layer of the heart.
septum Muscular wall which divides the right and left sides of the heart.
stenosis Narrowing.
coarctation Narrowing of a vessel, especially the aorta.
vasoconstriction Narrowing of the lumen of a blood vessel that limits blood flow, usually as a result of diseases, medications or physiological processes.
MRI magnetic resonance imaging Noninvasive technique that uses radiowaves and a strong magnetic field, rather then an x-ray beam, to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images of blood vessels.
MUGA multiple-gated acquisition scan Nuclear procedure that uses radioactive tracers to produce movie-like images of the structures of the heart, including the myocardium and the mitral and tricuspid valves.
epicardium Outermost layer of the heart.
pallor Paleness.
cardiac catheterization (CC) Passage of a catheter into the heart through a vein or artery to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the heart.
antiarrhythmics Prevent, alleviate, or correct cardiac arrhythmias by stabilizing the electrical conduction of the heart.
pulmonic valve Prevents the backflow of blood into the right ventricle.
laser ablation Procedure used to remove or treat varicose veins.
diaphoresis Profuse sweating.
ventricular fibrillation Quivering or spontaneous muscle contractions, especially of the heart, causing ineffectual contractions.
angiography Radiographic imaging of the heart and blood vessel after injection of a contract dye.
venography Radiography of a vein after injection of a contrast medium to detect incomplete filling of a vein, which indicates obstruction.
tachycardia Rapid heart action.
arterial biopsy Removal and examination of a segment of an arterial vessel wall to confirm inflammation of the wall or arteritis, a type of vasculitis.
Bx biopsy Removal and examination of a small piece of tissue for diagnostic purposes.
endarterectomy Removal of fatty plaque from the interior of an occluded vessel using a specially designed catheter fitted with a cutting or grinding device.
palpitation Sensation that the heart is not beating normally, possibly including "thumping" "fluttering" "skipped beats" or a pounding feeling in the chest.
lipid panel Series of tests (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides) used to assess risk factors of ischemic heart disease.
bradycardia Slow heart action.
congenital septal defect Small hole(s) within the atrial or ventricular septums, which are present at birth.
bruit Soft blowing sound heard on auscultation, possibly due to vibrations associated with the movement of blood, valvular action or both; also called murmur.
bundle of His Specialized muscle fibres, in the walls of the heart, between the ventricles that carry the electic impulses to the ventricles.
viscosity State of being sticky or gummy.
open heart surgery Surgical procedure performed on or within the exposed heart, usually with the assistance of a heart-lung machine.
commissurotomy Surgical separation of the leaflets of the mitral valve, which have fused together at their "commissures".
angiorrhaphy Suturing of a blood vessel.
CV cardiovascular system System composed of the heart, blood vessels and their function within the body.
systole The contraction phase of the heart.
diastole The relaxation phase of the heart.
lumen Tubular space or channel within any organ or structure of the body; space within an artert, vein, intestine, ot tube.
ligation Tying a varicose vein followed by removal of the affected segment.
commissurotomy Surgical separation of the leaflets of the mitral valve, which have fused together at their "commissures".
angiorrhaphy Suturing of a blood vessel.
cardiovascular system System composed of the heart, blood vessels and their function within the body.
systole The contraction phase of the heart.
diastole The relaxation phase of the heart.
lumen Tubular space or channel within any organ or structure of the body; space within an artert, vein, intestine, ot tube.
vasodilation Widening of the lumen of a blood vessel caused by the relaxing of the muscles of the vascular walls.
fibrillation Arrhythmia in which there is an abnormally rapid, uncoordinated quivering of the myocardium that can affect the atria or the ventricles.
heart block Arrhythmia in which there is interference with the normal transmission of electric impulses from the SA node to the Punkinje fibers.
cardioversion Defibrillation technique using low energy shocks to treat an arrhythmia, and is usually synchronized with the large R waves of the ECG complex to restore normal heart rhythm.
cardiomyopathy Disease or weakening of heart muscle that diminishes cardiac function.
defibrillation Electrical shock delivered randomly during the cardiac cycle to treat emergency life-threatening arrhythmias.
HTN hypertension Elevated blood pressure persistently higher than 140/90 mm Hg
leaflet Flat, leaf-shaped structures that comprises the valves of the heart and prevents backflow of blood.
atherosclerosis Form of arteriosclerosis characterized by the deposit of plaques containing cholesterol and lipids that narrow the lumen in the arteries.
arteriosclerosis Hardening and narrowing of an artery along with the loss of its elasticity.
US ultrasound High-frequency sound waves are directed at soft tissue and reflected as "echoes" to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure; also called sonography and echo.
phlebitis Inflammation of a deep or superficial vein of the arms or legs.
arrhythmia Irregularity in the rate or rhythm of the heart; also called dysrhythmia.
infarction Localized tissue necrosis due to the cessation of blood supply.
hypotension Low blood pressure persistently lower than 90/60 mm Hg.
angina Mild to severe suffocating pain that typically occurs in the chest and is caused by an inadequate blood flow to the myocardium; also called angina pectoris, intermittent chest pain usually short duration.
SPECT single-photon emission computed tomography MUGA scan of the heart in which the gamma camera moves in a circle around the patient to create individual images as "slices" of the heart.
carotid artery disease Narrowing of the carotid arteries, usually caused by atherosclerosis; may eventually lead to thrombus formation and stroke.
syncope Partial or complete loss of consciousness that is usually caused by a decreased supply of blood to the brain; also called fainting.
stent (placement) Placement of a mesh tube inserted into a natural passage or conduit in the body to prevent or counteract a disease-induced, localized flow constriction.
CABG coronary artery bypass graft Placement of a vessel graft from another part of the body to bypass the blocked part of a coronary artery and restore blood supply to the heart muscle.
ANS autonomic nervous system Portion of the nervous system that regulates involuntary actions, such as heart rate, digestion and peristalsis.
ECG, EEG electrocardiogram Procedure that graphically records the spread of electrical excitation to different parts of the heart using small metal electrodes applied to the chest, arms and legs.
EPS electrophysiology studies Procedure used to determine the cause of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias by mapping the heart's conduction system in a patient with an arrhythmia.
vasodilators Reduce blood pressure by relaxing the smooth muscle in blood vessels, particularly in the large arteries, arterioles and large veins, which decrease vascular resistance.
embolectomy Removal of an embolus.
cardiac MRI Specialized MRIthat provides information on both static and moving images of the heart, including blood flow velocity,
MVP mitral valve prolapse Structural defect in which the mitral valve leaflets prolapse into the left atrium during ventricular contraction, resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood.
anastomosis Surgical attachment of one end of a hollow structure to another end.
nuclear perfusion study Test used in conjunction with a stress test to detect the presence of coronary artery disease that is causing partial obstruction of the coronary arteries; also called thallium scan or cardiolite scan.
cardiac ablation Treatment for cardiac arrhythmias; usually performed under fluoroscopic guidance.
MRA magnetic resonance angiogram/magnetic resonance angiography Type of MRI scan that uses a magnetic field and radio waves to provide detailed images of blood vessels.
ECHO echocardiogram Ultrasonography that is used to visualize internal cardiac structures, produce images of the heart and assess cardiac output.
Doppler U/S Ultrasonography used to assess blood flow through blood vessels and the heart.
Created by: Barbara Ross