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Funeral History #8

True or False: in the late 19th Century, most deaths occurred in the home. True. If death was elsewhere, the body was usually prepared and returned to the home as soon as possible.
True or False: funerals differed in style in rural and urban areas. True. The undertaker was more prominent and handled more details in the cities.
In rural areas, who took care of laying out the body? The family took care of this part of the funeral service.
Undertakers played a modest role in: rural area funerals. He usually just ordered the casket and help place the body into the casket.
Where were rural visitations held? Usually these took place in the home.
In rural funerals, who played a more dominant role: the undertaker or the clergy? The clergy did. The undertaker usually arranged things for the clergy to take over.
In city funerals, who played a more dominant role: the undertaker or the clergy? The undertaker did. He usually took care of all arrangements.
Where were visitations held for city funerals? Usually these took place in the home.
True or False: funerals in both cities and rural areas were held in the home. True.
In city funerals, who laid out the body? The undertaker usually performed this.
True or false: in the late 19th Century, widows and widowers wore black for a minimum of one year. False. Women wore black for a minimum of one year. Men wore black for a maximum of one year.
True or false: In general, everyone in the late 19th Century wore black at funerals. True. This includes the undertaker, the pallbearers, the drivers, ministers, family and friends.
What were door badges used for? To indicate that a home was in mourning, and to identify where a wake was being held.
What color were door badges for young people? White.
Black door badges indicated that the person who died was of: Old age.
Young adults were often indicated by what color door badge? White with rosettes and/or ribbons.
When was the first crematory built in the US? In 1876.
Who built the first American crematory? Dr. F. Julius LeMoyne. It was in Washington, PA, and he built it primarily for family and friends.
When were a number of cremation societies organized? Between 1881 and 1885.
True or False: By the mid-19th century, there was a call for reform of the funeral industry. If so, why? True. Partly to protest the great expense of funerals including clothing and gifts.
What was the first American undertakers organization? The Undertaker's Mutual Protective Association of Philadelphia.
When was the Undertaker's Mutual Protective Association of Philadelphia formed? In 1864.
In 1868, this association was formed: Chicago Undertaker's Association.
Most major cities had Undertaker associations within this time frame: Between 1865 and 1880.
Who had the idea for the first state undertakers convention? Alan Durfee of Grand Rapids MI. The first one was in January of 1880.
The first national convention was in 1882, and was held where? In Rochester, NY. It was called the National Funeral Industrial Exposition.
In the beginning, funeral services schools were formed to: teach embalming.
True or False: some funeral services/embalming courses lasted 6 weeks. True.
The earliest schools were traveling courses.
Traveling funeral courses were: advertised in the local newspapers.
Dr. Carl Lewis Barnes founded: several schools of embalming in the late 1800's. He also compounded several varieties of embalming fluids.
In 1878, how many firms were making embalming fluids? There were 4 firms.
Joseph H. Clark founded: the Cincinnati School of Embalming, in 1882.
Who founded the Cincinnati School of Embalming, and when? In 1882, Joseph H. Clark founded this school.
In 1882, August Renouard conducted: Embalming demonstrations.
Charles A. Renouard founded: the Renouard School of Embalming in New York City, in 1894.
True or False: Charles A. Renouard was August Renouard's son. True, and both were instrumental in funeral service education.
C. B. Dolge founded the: United States School of Embalming, in 1887.
Who was known as the "Dean of Embalmers?" Felix Sullivan, because he founded several schools of embalming. He also embalmed many well known people.
What was the purpose of the American Board of Funeral Service Education? This agency was responsible for accredited colleges and programs for mortuary science and funeral service.
When was the Conference of Funeral Service Examining Boards established? In 1904, in St. Louis. It was responsible for the national licensing exam: the National Board Exam.
What was the National Association of Colleges of Mortuary Science? This was established in 1942, and was an organization for privately sponsored schools with the goal of advancing mortuary science education.
What was the National Foundation of Funeral Service? This was established in 1945, and was a non-profit educational trust to advance education within the profession. It eventually merged with the NFDA, as the Funeral Service Foundation.
This organization of college and university based funeral service programs was established in 1961. The University Mortuary Science Education Association.
What was the first state to license and embalmer, and in what year? Virginia, in 1894.
What was the first state to license a funeral director, and in what year? Pennsylvania, in 1895.
What was the first funeral service trade paper published? In 1871. It was titled "The Undertaker."
What did Henry E. Taylor publish? He published "The Undertaker," the first funeral service trade paper. It later became "The Sunnyside."
True or False: there was a publication called 'The Casket.' True. It was published in 1876. It later merged with The Sunnyside, and became 'The Casket Sunnyside.'
When was 'The Western Undertaker' published? In 1879. It later became 'The American Funeral Director.'
Which publication came out in 1880? 'The Shroud'
What was known as the "Era of Magazines?" 1885 - 1895.
What magazines came out during the Era of Magazines? The Embalmer, The National Undertaker, The Canadian Undertaker, The American Undertaker, The Embalmer's Monthly, The National Funeral Service Journal.
True or False: The American Undertaker was published dring the Era of Magazines. True.
True or False: 'The Casket' was published during the Era of Magazines. False.
True or False: 'The Embalmer's Monthly' was published during the Era of Magazines. True.
True or False: 'The Western Undertaker' was published during the Era of Magazines. False.
Created by: kellyrb