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HLTH ch. 10

digestive system

peristalsis movement of food particles through the digestive tract
absorption third function, digested food molecules pass through the lining of the small intestine into blood or lymph capillaries
alimentation process of providing nourishment or nutrition
DRI dietary reference intake
amylo starch
bili bile or gall
chole bile or gall
glyco sugar
-dipsia thirst
-orexia appetite
-pepsia digestion
-stalsis contraction
amylolysis starch converted into sugar
lipoid resembling fats
lipase breaks down lipids
amylase enzyme that breaks down starch
proteinase or protease enzyme that breaks down protein
-oid resembling
membrane that secretes mucus mucous
mucosa same as a mucous membrane
cholecysto gallbladder
choledocho common bile duct
hepato liver
sialadeno salivary glands
entero small intestine or intestines in general
intestino intestine in general
colo large intestine
colono large intestine
ano anus
enteral within, by way of, or pertaining to the small intestine
colic pertaining to the large intestine
rectum lower part of the large intestine
anus outlet of the rectum
bucco cheek
cheilo lip
gingivo gums
glosso tounge
linguo tounge
sialo saliva, salivary glands
sialadeno salivary gland
vago vagus nerve
endodontium aka dental pulp, soft tissue inside the tooth
periodontium tissue investing and supporting the teeth
parotid gland largest salivary glands near the ears
-id means either having the shape of or a structure
submandibular glands are located in the tissue of the mandible rather than beneath
duodenum first part of the large intestine
mucosa that lines the stomach is arranged in temporary folds called rugae
ruga means ridge, wrinkle or fold
serosa outer layer of the stomach
innermost membrane of the small intestine mucosa, contains villi
villi fingerlike projections, function to absorb nutrients
jejunum joins the ileum
ileum distal portion of the small intestine
ceco cecum
procto anum, rectum
sigmoido sigmoid colon
cecum forms the first portion of the large intestine and located distal to the ileum
vermiform appendix wormlike structure, opens into the cecum
appendicular pertaining to the appendage or vermiform appendix
sigmoid colon last parto of the colon
defecation elimination of feces
proctologist specializes in treating disorders of the colon, rectum and anus
major function of the liver is production of bile
glucagon increases blood glucose levels
insulin decreases blood glucose levels
cholangiography radiology of the major bile ducts and is useful in demonstrating gallstones and tumors
hematochezia presence of blood in the stool
occult blood blood that cannot be seen but can be detected by a chemical test
anorexia lack or loss of appetite
anorexia nervosa sometimes life-threatening illness that is self induced starvation
emaciation excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutrition
dyspepsia faulty or painful digestion
dysphagia difficulty swallowing
eructation belching; that results from drawing air up from the stomach and expelling it through the mouth
hematemesis vomiting blood, indicates upper GI bleeding
aphagia inability to swallow, result of an organic or psychological cause
stomatomycosis fungal condition of the mouth
candida albicans yeast type of fungus that is part of the normal flora of the oral cavity
glossopyrosis abnormal sensation of pain, burning and stinging of the tongue without apparent lesions or cause
stomatitis inflammation of the mouth
caries decay
endodontitis inflammation of the endodontium or the tooth pulp
malocclusion aka improper bite, abnormal contact of the teeth of the upper jaw and maxilla
pyorrhea inflammation of the gingiva and the periodontal ligament
temporal mandibular joint, TMJ pair of joints connecting the mandible to the skull
leukoplakia precancerous, slowly developing change in a mucous membrane, characterized by white patches
mumps acute viral infection characterized by swelling of the parotid glands
esophageal achalasia abnormal condition which the lower esophageal sphincter fails to relax properly
esophageal atresia usually congenital, an esophagus that ends in a blind pouch or narrows so much that it obstructs continuos passage of food to the stomach
esophageal varices enlarged and swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus, which are susceptible to hemorrhage
gastoesophageal reflux disease GERD dysfunction that involves a back flow of the contents of the stomach into the esophagus
hiatal hernia protrusion of a portion of the stomach upward through a defect in the diaphragm, GERD is one of the major symptoms
flatulence excessive gas in the stomach or intestines
gastrectasia stretching of the stomach caused by overeating
crohn disease inflammatory bowel disease
fistulas abnormal passages between internal organs
fissure cleft or groove or a cracklike lesion of the skin
Irritable bowel syndrome aka spastic colon mucous colitis, is a common chronic non inflammatory intestinal disorder
diverticulum pouch like herniation through the muscular wall of a tubular organ
diverticulosis diverticula present in the colon without inflammation or symptoms
strangled hernia hernia which blood vessels are constricted by the neck of the hernial sac
intussusception telescopic folding back of the bowel into itself
volvus twisting of a bowel
-penia deficiency
hepatorenal syndrome kidney failure, associated with hepatic failure
cirrhosis chronic progressive liver disease, characterized by degeration of liver cells
cholelithiasis presence of gallstones or calculi in the gallbladder
choledochitis inflammation of the common bile duct
achalasia abnormal condition, characterized by the inability of the muscle to relax
parenteral not through the alimentary tract but through some other route
total parenteral nutrition administration of all nutrition through an indwelling catheter into the vena cava or other main vain
lavage irrigation or washing out of an organ
anastomosis connection between two vessels
anastomose to join structures
esophagojejunostomy surgical anastomosis of the esophagus to the jejunum
gastroenterostomy body of the stomach is joined with some part of the small intestine
gastroduodenostomy anastomosis of the gastric stump with duodenum
anastomosis surgical connection between two structures
ileostomy forming an ileal stoma onto the surface of the abdomen
laparoenterostomy formation of an opening through the abdominal wall into the small intestine
proctoplasty surgical repair of the rectum and anus
lithotriptor name of the shock wave generator in biliary lithotripsy
lithotripsy nonsurgical management of gallstones
endoscopic sphincterotomy endoscopic removal of biliary stones
laparoscopic cholecystectomy removal of a gallbladder through four small incisions in the abdominal wall
laparocholecystotomy incision into the gallbladder through the abdominal wall
choledochojejunostomy surgical formation fo a new opening between the common bile duct and jejunum
choledocholithotripsy mechanical crushing of gallstones in the common bile duct
Created by: btuehara