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Socials 10

Canadian History

Upper Canada The southern most colony. It then turned into canada west. It was home to the family compact. Mainly British population
Constitutional act of 1791 Divided the Province of Quebec into Lower Canada (on the lower reaches of the St. Lawrence River) and Upper Canada, along the present-day Ontario-Québec boundary.
Upper Canada Rebellions -The Rebellion in Upper Canada was led by William Lyon Mackenzie, a Scottish-born newspaper publisher and politician who was a fierce critic of the Family Compact
Lower Canada rebellions *The Rebellion in Lower Canada was led by Louis Joseph Papineau and his Patriotes, as well as more moderate French Canadian nationalists -RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT
Radical groups of the Rebellion freres chasseurs/patriotes -: Lower Canada William Lyon Mckenzie: Upper Canada (against family compact)
Leaders of the Rebellions: -Louis Joseph Papineau - Upper Canada Rebellions -William Lyon Mackenzie - Lower Canada Rebellions
Canada’s 19th Century Oligarchies Oligarchy: a small, select group of people. The Canadian oligarchy was the Family Compact, a group of Tory-dominated government that pretty much ruled British North America. Had much more in common with the upperclassmen than the majority.
Robert Nelson: A leading figure for the Lower Canada rebellion, founded the Frères Chasseurs.
Les Frères Chasseurs: A Lower Canadian group of rebels (the Patriote Rebellion **on the Patriote side). Led/founded by Robert Nelson. They wanted to make Lower Canada an independent democratic republic.
Results of the Rebellions Rebellions 1837: Upper Canada & Lower Canada Williams Lyon Mackenzie (against Family compact) Papineau (92 Resolutions) (Cheateau Clique) *Responsible government
Lord Durham *Report- 1. Assimilate the French Canadians 2. Unite the colonies into ONE- Province of Canada (English) 3.Instill Resp. Govt (never applied until 1839)
Rebellion losses bill 1849 -First test of responsible government -Lord Elgin was the governor at the time -If he accepted the bill it would antagonize english populations, if he denied it though it would not be responsible government -He approved the bill
Church of England in Upper Canada: The Anglican Church (Church of England) of Canada (ACC or ACoC) is the Province of the Anglican Communion in Canada.
First Settlers of Upper Canada: The first settlers in Upper Canada were the english
Clergy Reserves in Upper Canada Clergy Reserves were tracts of land in Upper Canada reserved for the support of "Protestant clergy" by the Constitutional Act of 1791 which also established Upper and Lower Canada as distinct regions each with an elected assembly.
Irish Nationalists and impact on Canada: Irish Canadians are immigrants and descendants of immigrants who originated in Ireland. 1.2 million Irish immigrants arrived, 1825 to 1970, at least half of those in the period from 1831–1850. By 1867, comprised 24% of Canada's population.
BNA act •Based on the Quebec Resolutions •Retained the monarch as the supreme authority (Governor General) •Many small details are included (even ferry service) •Recognized both federal and provincial levels of government signed in london in 1867
Federal Government Public debt and property, Trade and commerce, Taxation, Postal service, Statistics, Military and defense, Currency, Banking, Indian land rights, Marriage and divorce, P.O.G. *residual / emergency*
Provincial Government Amendments to the constitution, Provincial taxes, Timber and wood in Provincial areas, Prisons in Province, Hospitals and health, Liquor licenses, Roads, canals etc, Civil rights in the Province, Education
Charlotte town 1864 • Asked to join a Maritimes conference on unification • Arrived in PEI when the circus was on (no one greeted them) • They agreed to another conference in Quebec City
Quebec city 1864 • Set out the framework for the new constitution • Drafted 72 resolutions, many by MacDonald himself • Agreed to allow provinces to retain many powers • There was a melding of both the American and British governments
London 1868 • New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Canada West and East decided to join • The British Parliament passed the British North America Act (BNA) which would become Canada’s constitution • The Dominion of Canada was formed
Key individuals in confederation → John A. Mcdonald → George Brown → George Etienne Cartier
Factors that lead colonies to join Confederation: Debt, CPR, Immigration, Defense against Manifest Destiny
Key Prime Ministers in Canadian History (1867-1914): John A. MacDonald, William Lyon Mackenzie
First Provinces of Confederation: nova scotia, new brunswick, Ontario and quebec
B.C.’s decision to join: They had lots of debt and the government promised to help if they joined. It was also better for trade and the CPR. BC was also afraid of manifest Destiny from the US.
Pacific Scandal: John A. Macdonald accepted bribes to finish the CPR, and was caught and forced to resign
National Policy (pros & cons): Consisted of three main parts: -increased (white) immigration to Canada -finishing the CPR -increasing tariffs on U.S. products
Prairie Provinces decision to join Confederation: Completion of the CPR would bring more people west to inhabit the prairies
What is a Confederation: an organization that consists of a number of parties or groups united in an alliance or league.
US Civil War in relation to Canadian history: From 1861 to 1865 the United States had a civil war. This conflict influence on the British North American colonies: continental and trans atlantic trade affected, and the battles taking place south of the border created tension across the entire continen
Manifest Destiny & impact on Canada: Caused a buzz for confederation, helped give Canada a fighting chance against the Americans. Manifest destiny was an american Idea that they needed to rule the world they claimed it was a god sent mission. This spurred Canada to convince BC to join confed
Rupert’s Land: Land that was owned by the HBC (Hudson’s Bay Company). Contained the prairies. Was purchased from HBC by Canada in 1869/70
Red River Resistance Was led by Louis Riel. Red River was a Metis settlement which had been promised many things by the government which were not honourably met. they therefore rebelled.
Land surveyors People sent by the government to inspect the land, so that the government has information on how much land there was and the activity around the land.
North west rebellion The North west rebellions were a violent 5 month insurgency against the canadian government fought mainly by the Metis and their aboriginal allies in what is now saskatchewan and alberta
Key peps in BC history -James Douglas -Amor de Cosmos
Role of gold in BC Gold was a major business and immigration motivator ( PULL FACTOR ) for people to come to BC and the Island. It also gave BC a kickstart in economy and helped build many settlements and towns that still thrive to this day.
Bore war impact First time Canada dispatched of troops overseas
William Cornelius Van Horne: American that turned into the president of the CPR (was super influential in the building of it)
Alaska Boundary Dispute: alaska panhandle reaching down into b.c. u.s. wanted to keep it, canada wanted it.
Created by: Gabymorton