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Unit 3 chap 19

Small Animal Medical Nursing Objectives 1-6

What are the "Five Freedoms of Animal Welfare" 1. Freedom from hunger and Thirst 2. Freedom from discomfort 3. Freedom from Pain, injury or disease 4. Freedom to express normal behavior 5. Freedom from fear and distress
Freedom from hunger and thirst by providing access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vigor
Freedom from Discomfort by providing an appropriate environment, including shelter and a comfortable resting area
Freedom from Pain, Injury, or Disease by prevention or rapid diagnosis and treatment
Freedom to Express Normal Behavior by providing sufficient space, proper facilities, and company of the animal's own kind
Freedom from Fear and Distress by ensuring conditions and treatment that wvoid mental suffering
The Veterinary Technician Practice Model 1. Gather patient data 2. Identify and prioritize technician evaluations 3. Develop nursing care plan 4. re-evaluate patient
The Veterinary Technician Practice Model provides a structured nursing process to ensure that consistently excellent care is provided to each and every patient
Step 1 Gathering patient data technician gathers subjective and objective patient data known as the database
Step 2 identify and prioritize tech evals a clinical judgment regarding the physiologic and psychological needs of the patient this is called "technician evaluation"
"technician evaluation" is based on the technicians independent critical thinking and analysis of the gathered data
technician evaluations fall into three broad categories 1. identification of actual problems 2. risk of future problems 3. and level of client knowledge or coping abilities that may or may not impair at-home-care of the pet
Step 3 develop nursing care plan each evaluation is accompanied by one or more interventions to help achieve the desired patient outcome
Step 4 Re-evaluate patient the care plan is continuously revised as the patient responds to the interventions and new evals are identified based on changes in patient status
Etiology the study of the causation or origination of disease
pathogenesis the mechanism of development of a disease it can be acute or chronic
overall process for disease can be summarized as etiology-pathogenesis-lesions-clinical signs
lesions a bodies response to acute or chronic disease, resulting in injury to cells and body tissues
clinical signs the outward cues that result from the disease process
Respiratory Disease result in inflammation, irritation and obstruction or restriction of the airway
nasal discharge results from inflammation or irritation of the nasal mucosa and can be different viscosities
nasal and sinus congestion is caused by inflammation of the epithelial tissue that lines the nasal and sinus passages and increased production of mucus by epthelial cells lead to narrowing, thus "stuffy nose"
a sneeze an involuntary, spasmodic, forcible expulsion of air from the mouth and nose in an effort to expel respiratory irritants
a cough forceful expulsion of air from the lungs through the mouth either reflexive or conscious action resulting from inflammation to pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi or pleura
the difference between upper and lower airway disease upper airway disease exhibit increased inspiratory effort and take slow, deep breaths
the difference between upper and lower airway disease patients with lower airway disease typically exhibit increased expiratory effort and have shallow, rapid breaths
patients with pleural effusion have restricted breathing because the presence of fluid in the thoracic cavity causes compression of the lung tissue and inadequate lung expansion
hypoxia is defined as deficient oxygenation of tissues and can result from reduced blood flow, decreased oxygen-carrying capacity, hypoventilation or pneumonia
Heart disease is a pathologic abnormality that affects the myocardium, the valves, rhythm condition or the overall structure of the heart
the progression of cardiovascular disease is as time progresses the compensatory mechanisms sustaining cardiac output eventually fail resulting in heart failure and poor tissue perfusion
The first sign that heart disease has progressed to heart failure is tachypnea
a patient with heart disease may have tachycardia, a weak bounding aynchronous femoral pulse, heart murmur and/or an arrhythmia
a patient with heart failure may have tachypnea, exercise intolerance, syncope, weakness, prolonged CRT, pale mucous membranes. Cats-anorexia, depression, weight loss.
congestive heart failure results when decreased cardiac output and tissue hypoxia cause poor venous return, leading to fluid overload (congestion)
If the left side of the heart is damaged it is termed left-sided congestive heart failure and fluid backs up into the lungs causing plueral effusion
If the right side of the heart is damaged it is termed right-sided CHF with congestion occurring in the abdominal and thoracic cavities.
Most common forms of heart disease in dogs and cats are cardiomyopathy, degenerative Atrioventricular valve disease (dogs), heartworm disease, systemic hypertension
cardiomyopathy is a disease of the heart muscle either primary or secondary
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common form of feline cardiomyopathy, increased thickness of the left ventricle wall and small ventricular lumen. susceptible to FATE
dilated cardiomyopathy is the most common canine cardiomyopathy, extreme atrial and ventricular dilatation with decreased contractility. damage primarily on the left side
degenerative atrioventricular valve disease affects the cardiac valves and is characterized by thickening of the tissue
heartworm disease a mosquito-borne infectious disease in both dogs (antigen test) and cats (unisex infection is common antigen not reliable)
systemic hypertension is defined as an increase in systemic blood pressure with secondary disease affecting the majority of the population
Diseases primarily leading to secondary hypertension include kidney disease, hyperthyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism and diabetes mellitus
regurgitation is the passive expulsion of material from the mouth, pharynx or esophagus usually consisting of undigested food. these patients are at risk for aspiration pneumonia
vomiting is defined as the forceful expulsion of contents from the stomach and the upper small intestine; an active process requiring abdominal contractions accompanying nausea, anxiety, hypersalivation
hematemesis the vomiting of fresh or digested blood
diarrhea is characterized by the frequent passage of loose, unformed, often watery stool
constipation is characterized by the infrequent and often difficult passage of hard stool
important questions to ask regarding vomiting, diarrhea, constipation are duration, consistency, severity, frequency, amount and quality
hematochezia is the presence of blood in the feces; indicates a problem with the colon or rectum
melena is defined as the presence of digested blood in the feces, characterized by black tarry color. Indicative of upper GI bleeding ie ulcers, endoparasites
tenesmus is defined as painful straining at urination or defecation
pancreatitis occurs when the digestive enzyme trypsin is prematurely activated within the pancreatic tissue instead of within the duodenum, resulting in local inflammation and necrosis as well as focal peritonitis
exocrine pancreatic insufficiency EPI is caused by insufficient production and secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes
acute pancreatitis most common in dogs is characterized by anorexia, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and fever; diagnosed relies on lab work and imaging.
chronic pancreatitis most common in cats is characterized by anorexia, lethargy, weight loss, hypothermia and vomiting to include severe organ failure; definitive diagnosis made from pancreatic biopsy
EPI is commonly caused by chronic pancreatitis. loss of digestive enzymes leads to maldigestion and malabsorption of ingested nutrients
clinical signs of EPI include but are not limited to polyphagia (increased appetite), weight loss and chronic diarrhea, greasy hair coat, vit B deficiency.
Treatment of EPI includes replacement of pancreatic enzymes with each meal
Hepatobiliary system includes disease of the liver and gall bladder
sever hepatobiliary disease can lead to hepatic encephalopathy
hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is when the brain is exposed to GI toxins such as ammonia as a consequence of decreased liver function
clinical signs of hepatic encephalopathy will include altered mentation, head pressing, hypersalivation, circling, ataxia, seizures, blindness, behavior changes, lethargy and coma
HE is characterized by increased liver enzymes, bilirubin, ammonia, and bile acids and decreases in glucose, albumin and BUN. UA findings include bilirubin and ammonia biurate crystals
feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL) is characterized by an accumulation of lipids or fats within the cytoplasm or more than 80% of hepatocytes
FHL is caused by a derangement of lipid metabolism associated with anorexia for an extended period of time
canine chronic hepatitis (CH) is defined as inflammation of the liver tissues indicating a history of liver disease over a long period of time usually 4-6 months
CH is usually caused by viral infection, leptospirosis, copper storage disease and hepatotoxic drugs.
clinical signs of CH include vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, weight loss and PU/PD, icterus, ascites, GI ulcerations and/or hepatic encephalopathy
portosystemic shunt (PSSs) are extrahepatic or intrahepatic vascular abnormalities that connect portal and systemic circulations
the two types of PSS are Extrahepatic shunts (congenital)or Intrahepatic shunts congenital and acquired (secondary to portal hypertension)
feline cholangitis refers to inflammation of the bile ducts
inflammation that spreads to the liver is termed cholangiohepatitis acute or chronic
inflammation of the bile ducts cholangitis
Created by: tnewhouse