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History Ch. 29-30

Vietnam War and Protests Ch. 29-30

Ho Chi Minh Leader who wanted independence from France. His communist forces eventually ruled in North Vietnam.
Why did the US become involved in Vietnam? The US didn't like the French colonization in Vietnam, but they also wanted France as an ally in its Cold War effort. So, the US became involved in Vietnam to help their ally France, even though President Truman disagreed with the French.
domino theory Idea that if Vietnam fell to communism, its closest neighbors would follow. This would threaten Japan, the Philippines, and Australia.
(SEATO) Southeast Asia Treaty Organization A group that tried to stop the spread of communism.
Vietcong North Vietnam NLF guerilla fighters who set booby traps, ambushed American soldiers, assassinated government officials and destroyed roads in Vietnam.
What happened in the Gulf of Tonkin? During Johnson's Presidency, North Vietnam torpedo boats fired upon the American destroyer USS Maddox as it patrolled the Gulf of Tonkin.
What was Truman & Eisenhower's Vietnam policy? They sent money, but not troops, to France hoping to keep communism from spreading to surrounding countries (domino theory).
What was a Kennedy's Vietnam policy? He took an aggressive approach to communism. He sent Special Force troops to South Vietnam to advise the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) on how to fight better.
What was Johnson's Vietnam policy? Most aggressive approach. Johnson ordered an airstrike against North Vietnam after Gulf of Tonkin incident.
Who ruled Indochina in Southeast Asia during the 1800's-1960's? France
How had WWII weakened French colonialism? It strengthened nationalist movements for Independence while weakening the economic and military positions of traditional European powers.
How did the US help South Vietnamese government resist communism? Kennedy sent special forces troops to help them learn how to fight communism better, and eventually had to remove Diem from power.
(NLF)National Liberation Front A group that wanted to make all of Vietnam communist.
Diem South Vietnam's ruler.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Congress gave President Johnson power to use all necessary measure to repel any armed attach against the forces of the US and to prevent further aggression.
William Westmorland General who counseled Pres. Johnson to increase the US military in Vietnam and do more fighting in order to win the war.
Napalm A jellied gasoline which was dropped in large canisters that exploded on impact, covering large areas in flames.
Agent Orange A herbicide meant to kill plant life. It was used to kill all of the enemies' food supplies.
Why did the American troops' morale decline after the war continued? They began to question US involvement. Most of the last groups of American soldiers in Vietnam were drafted. They also felt like the South Vietnam people did not want them there.
doctrine teachings
What was Ho Chi Minh's military doctrine? He believed fighting only when victory was assured, which meant never fighting on his opponents' terms.
What was the first event to escalate the Vietnam War? In 1961, Kennedy sent military advisors to train South Vietnam troops.
How many soldiers died in Vietnam War? Almost 500,000
Who relied on large tunnel networks to hide from American forces? The Vietcong guerrillas
What was the strategic aim of Operation Rolling thunder? To "Americanize" the war efforts by attacking with pilots dropping napalm and spraying Agent Orange.
The draft A form of forced military service in the case of a national emergency or war. In the United States, all young men between the ages of 18 and 26 are required to register with Selective Service.
The main objective of the war in Vietnam was ___. was to bring down North Vietnam and Viet Cong and to disable the communism concept from its roots.
hawks conservative congress members who supported Johnson's war politics and were against communism.
doves Congressman who did not support Johnson's war politics and felt the war was not any of their business.
draftee Young men drafted into the military service.
deferment postponement
(SDS) Students for a Democratic Society Anti-war, anti-racism, and anti-poverty groups that formed on campuses in the US.
credibility gap The government reported positive results from war, but the news journalist reported negative results.
Tet Offensive Communist coordinated attacks on 36 provincial capitals and 5 major cities, including the US embassy in Saigon.
Eugene McCarthy Democratic Presidential candidate who was a Minnesotan senator who opposed war.
Robert Kennedy Democratic Presidential candidate who was a New York senator who opposed war.
inevitable certain to happen
Why did Johnson not seek reelection in 1968? He feared that the hate of war in Vietnam would determine the race for President.
Richard Nixon The 37th President. Republican who ran on "peace with honor". He also wanted the US out of Vietnam. He promised to listen to the "silent majority" of Americans.
What happened at the Democratic Convention in Chicago, 1968? Violence erupted outside the convention between anti-war protestors and police
How did the Democratic convention help determine the election of 1969? . The television coverage of the fighting in the streets and bitter arguments on the convention floor shocked and repelled Americans.
Vietnamization Nixon's approach for US forces to withdraw as ARVN troops assumed more combat duties.
My Lai US troops shot and killed unarmed people in My Lai...thinking that they were Vietcong fighters posing as civilians.
Pentagon Papers A classified government history of America's involvement in Vietnam that got leaked to the Times. Nixon tried to block its publication, but the Supreme Court ruled against him.
Paris Peace Accords The US, South Vietnam, North Vietnam and Vietcong signed this cease-fire and US troop withdrawal agreement.
War Powers Act Congressed passed this act restricting the President's war-making powers by requiring him to consult with congress within 48 hours of committing American forces to a foreign conflict.
civilians People living in a country that were not soldiers.
What happened at Kent State? Protesters were throwing bottles and rocks at the National Guard In Ohio, when a guardsmen thought he heard a sniper's shot. He fired his rifle, then other guardsmen started firing also, killing 4 youths.
What happened after North Vietnam won power over South Vietnam? Communism spread throughout South Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. The communist government killed anyone who had ties to the West.
Henry Kissinger Nixon's leading adviser on national security and international affairs who embrace the idea of realpolitik.
realpolitik German word for "real politics", political goals should be defined by concrete national interests instead of abstract ideologies.
Zhou Enlai Premier of China in the 1970's
Why did Nixon reach out to China? He thought that trade would be profitable with China, and if he hoped to drive a wedge between China and the Soviet Union, and China might pressure North Vietnam to accept peace and end fighting.
(SALT) Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty Treaty that froze the deployment of intercontinental ballistic missiles and placed limits on antiballistic missiles.
detente Flexible diplomacy adopted by Nixon to ease tensions between the US, Soviet Union, and China.
counterculture Movement that upheld values different from those of mainstream culture.
generation gap Lack of understanding and communication between the older and younger generations.
communes small communities in which the people have common interests and share resources.
feminism Theory of political, social, and economic equality of men and women.
(ERA) Equal Rights Movement Amendment to the Constitution that would guarantee gender equality under the law.
Gloria Steinem Feminist leader who tried to change awareness of women's rights through media.
Phyllis Schlafly Political organizer who was anti-communist and spoke out against feminism.
Cesar Chavez Latino activist who fought for farm laborers.
migrant farmworkers People who moved from state to state to pick fruits and vegetables for farms.
(AIM) American Indian Movement Group that helped Indians living in urban ghettos, securing land, legal rights, and self-government.
Ralph Nadar Lawyer who began to investigate whether flawed car designs led to increased traffic deaths. He went on to form many other consumer advocacy groups to keep the public safe.
toxic waste poisonous byproduct of human activity
Earth Day Nationwide protest and activism event held every year, beginning in 1970.
EPA Government agency committed to cleaning up and protecting the environment.
Clean Air Act Act passed in 1970 that lessened air polluting by limiting the emissions from factories and automobiles
Clean Water Act Act in 1973 that restricted the pollution of water by industry and agriculture.
Endangered Species Act Law in 1973 to protect endangered plants and animals.
Created by: grantham10