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Funeral History #4

Unit 4

What Native American tribe believed in people having 4 souls? The Santee Sioux of Dakota held this belief.
What was the function of the 4 souls? 2 souls had bearing on death: 1 would never leave the body/vicinity of the death. 1 set out, at death, on a 4-day journey to the 'land of the spirits.' Both had ghost-like qualities; mourners had to offer sacrifices, gifts, a feast.
What tribe would mutilate themselves during mourning? The Santee Sioux of Dakota would cut gashes in their thighs and forearms. Women would chop their hair and refuse to comb it. Men would paint their faces & refuse to wash until they killed an enemy or provide a feast in honor of the deceased.
What were the funeral rituals of the Sioux? Women washed the body. The face was painted red for preservation & decoration. Lock of hair was cut & given to the family. Body was clothed in best robes, wrapped in blanket in which possessions were tucked. Men built platforms for Open Air Burial.
What was the "Open Air Burial," and how long did this period last? Men constructed a platform on which the body was place, for a period of one year. At the end of the year, the body was taken down for an earth burial. The earth burial was very important to show respect for deceased & fear of his spirit.
What Native American tribe felt that death was the end of everything good? The Navajos held this belief. They were concerned with warding off death, with rituals and chants performed around the sick person.
Who practice violent expressions of grief? This was a ritual practiced by the Sioux. The Navajo tried to ward off death.
What were the funeral rituals of the Navajo? Close family washed & dressed the body in best clothes. Ground burial, usually day after death, with possessions. The place of death was never to be used again; if in home, the home would be burned. 4 day mourning, conducting purification rites.
Who had Open-Air Burials? The Sioux had these burials. The Navajo immediately buried their dead.
Who buried the dead in their best robes? Both the Sioux and the Navajo buried their dead this way.
Who buried the dead with weapons and possessions? Both the Sioux and the Navajo buried their dead this way.
When was the Virginia Colony founded, and where? This American Colony was founded in 1607 in Jamestown, for commercial reasons.
When was the Massachusetts Bay Colony founded, by whom, and where? This American Colony was founded in 1620, by the Pilgrims, in Plymouth, for religious reasons.
True or false: the Virginia Colonists had a problem with the Church of England. False. They incorporated the religion into their government.
True or false: the Massachusetts Bay Colonists had a problem with the Church of England? True. They rejected the Church & other established sects and sought freedom to develop their own religious beliefs and practices.
What was the Road to Salvation? Also called the Keys to Salvation, this was an ideology based on hard work, industriousness, and goodness. This became known as the "Protestant Work Ethic.
How did American Colonists view death? Death was considered an inevitable and natural part of life.
What are Epitaphs? These were cleaver sayings about one's life, written on gravestones.
What was the "Skull & Crossbones" used for? This was a symbol of death in early New England, marked on the gravestones of the dead. As time went on, people made a change to a more peaceful symbol of the "Winged Cherub."
In a typical colonial funeral, who made the coffin? The coffins were made of wood (type depended on social position of the dead) and were build by carpenters.
What is Coffin Furniture? These were handles and decorations that were imported from England around the mid-18th century.
Who dug the graves for colonial funerals? This was a task generally performed by the neighbors.
True or false: Colonial families left the funeral before their lowering of the coffin. False. The families walked behind the coffin (if a coffin was used), mourners watched the coffin be lowered into the grave, and watched the dirt be filled in.
True or false: People still usually watch the coffin lowered into the ground? False. These practices is usually not observed today.
How did the Sexton differ between England and the American Colonies? The Sexton was paid for his services in the colonies. Still performed the same tasks of overseeing the digging and announcing deaths with a bell toll.
How were funeral bills sometimes paid for in the colonies? Funeral bills often listed liquor as one of the expenses. Many professionals were paid in wine or rum.
Whose responsibility was it to house out of town visitors? It was the the widow or widower's responsibility to house and feed visitors. This could lead to great expenses for the spouse/family of the deceased.
Created by: kellyrb