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chap 18 cont 13

Milk collection in cattle/rumen collection

why are milk samples collected from dairy animals to test for the presence of mastitis
what is mastitis an inflammation of the mammary gland that is commonly caused by bacterial infection
clinical signs of mastitis include a hard, hot udder, abnormal appearance or smell of the milk and pain
CMT California mastitis test teats are cleaned and dried and a small amount of milk is expelled from each teat into individual sample wells. equal amounts of reagent is put in the wells too. the formation of gel is graded 0-3 the higher the number the more inflammation
rumen collection is collected for several reasons diagnosis of disease of the forestomachs, may be used for transfaunation of the sick animals rumen with normal rumen flora
characteristics of rumen should include color, pH, odor, microbial organisms and numbers, and electrolyte levels
materials needed for rumen fluid collection stomach tube, lubricant, Frick speculum, mouth gag, dose syringe and sample container
thoracocentesis is the aspiration of fluid from the thoracic cavity
why is thoracocentesis performed in large animals to obtain pleural fluid samples for diagnostic purposes and therapeutically to drain fluid, air or exudate from the pleural cavity
materials needed for thoracocentesis are sterile gloves, sample tubes, needle, catheter, lidocaine, syringe, blade, three way stopcock, extension tubing, suture material, u/s machine
the site to thoracocentesis in horses and camelids is the ventral portion of the 6th and 7th intercostal (between ribs) 10-12 cm dorsal to the olecranon, above the lateral thoracic vein.
complications of thoracocentesis can be pneumothorax, dyspnea and introgenic infection
two methods used for the equine transtracheal aspiration percutaneous and endoscopic
materials needed for TTW sterile gloves, blades, syringe of NaCl, needles, TTW kits
most common complication of TTW include cellulitis or SC abscessation at the tracheal puncture site, SC enphysema, pulmonary foreign body, acute dyspnea, tracheal laceration, minor hemorrhage and iatrogenic infection.
bronchoalveolar lavage is a procedure to collect fluid samples from the lower airway BAL
advantage of BAL is better cytologic samples for assessment
disadvantage of BAL is samples are representative of only a limited area of the lung and are subject to contamination caused by passing the tube through the nares
if TTW and BAL are both performed which one should be done first TTW to allow fluid samples to be otained before any contamination may be introduced with passage of the BAL tubing
Peritoneal fluid is obtained by abdominocentesis
peritoneal fluid is produced by the cells of the peritoneum the cells lining the abdominal cavity and other surfaces of abdominal cavity
indications for abdominocentesis include colic, suspected peritonitis, weight loss, abdominal distention, chronic diarrhea, signs of internal hemorrhage, abnormal ultrasound findings
materials needed for abdominocentesis in horses include four-inch bitch catheter, blade, anticoagulant tubes, syringe, gauze, sterile gloves, lidocaine
the two most common sites for abdominocentesis in camelids are ventral midline and a right paracostal site
the most common complications associated with abdominocentesis are failure to obtainn a sample and slight skin hemorrhage, protrusion of omentum through the site of puncture in the abdominal wall can also occur, penetration of the bowel, penetration of the spleen, damage to the xiphoid process and introduction of bacteri
cerebrospinal fluid may be collected from patients when central nervous system disease is suspected
CDF tap requires general anethetic
CSF in equine is performed at atlantooccipital site
Lumbosacral site is performed with the horse remaining very still and standing as squarely as possible
complications of CSF tap or LSA tap include trauma to the spinal cord, herniation of the cerebellum, infection of the meninges
Created by: tnewhouse