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Human Geography

Vocab terms for Geography Final

TermDefinition
Cartography The science of making maps.
Diffusion The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time.
Geographic Grid A system of imaginary arcs drawn in a grid pattern on Earth 's surface.
Geographic Information System(GIS) A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.
Geographic Positioning System( GPS) A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations , and receivers.
Globalization Actions processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
Latitude The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator.
Longitude The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east to west.
Meridian An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles.
Projection A piece of land or geographic area transferred onto paper
Agricultural Density The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture
Arable land land suited for agriculture.
Crude Birth Rate(CBR) The total number of live births in a year for every l,000 people alive in society.
Crude Death Rate(CDR) The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,00 people alive in society.
Demographic Transition The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.
Epidemiology Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence , distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
Panademic Disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
Population Pyramid A bar graph that displays the percentage of a place's population for each age and gender.
Brain Drain Large- scale emigration by talented people.
Emigration Migration from a location.
Immigration Migration to a new location.
Internal Migration Permanent movement within a particular country.
Migration Form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location.
Refugees people who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.
Unathorized Immigrants people who enter a country without proper documents . permanent movement undertaken by choice.
Culture The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition.
Popular Culture Culture found in a large , heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
Folk Culture Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
Custom The frequent repetition of an act to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act.
Habit A repetitive act performed by a particular individual.
Taboo A restriction or behavior imposed by social custom.
Terroir The contribution of a location's distinctive physical features to the way food tastes.
Creole Language A language that results from the mixing of a colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.
Dialect a regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
Extinct Language A language that was once used by people in daily activities but its no longer used.
Isogloss Geographical boundary of a language feature.
Isolated Language A language that is unrelated to any other languages and therefore not attached to any language family.
Language a system of communication through the use of speech a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
language Branch a collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousands of years ago.
language Family a collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
Lingua Franca a language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages.
Pidgin Language a language that mixes a simplified grammar and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca with another language.
Universalizing Religion a religion that attempts to all people, not just these living in a particular location.
Ethic Religion a religion with a relatively concentrated spatial distribution whose principles are likely to be based on the physical characteristics of a particular location in which it adherents are concentrated.
Monotheism The doctrine or belief of the existence of only one god.
Polytheism Belief in or worship of more than one god.
Sect A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination.
Fundamentalism A literal interpretation and a strict and intense adherence to basic principles of a religion.
Animism Belief that objects , such as plants and stones, or natural events, like thunderstorms, have a discrete spirit and conscious life.
Denomination A division of a branch that congregations in a single legal and administrative body.
pilgrimage a journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.
Apartheid laws(no longer in effect) in South Africa that physically separate different races into different geographic areas.
Balkinization Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities.
Centripetal Force an attitude that tends to unify people and enhance support for a state.
Ethnic Cleansing Process in which a more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region.
Ethnicity Identity with a group of people who share the cultural traditions of a particular homeland or hearth.
Genocide The mass killing of a group of people in an attempt to eliminate the entire group from existence.
Nationalism loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality.
Nationality Identity with a group of people who share legal attachment and personal allegiance to a particular place as a result of being born there.
Race Identity with a group of people who share a biological ancestor.
Racism Belief that race is primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that racial differences produce an inherent superiority of a particular race.
Racist A person who subscribes to the beliefs of racism.
sharecropper a person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops.
triangular Slave Trade A practice primarily during the eighteenth century, in which European ships transported slaves from Africa to Caribbean islands, molasses from the Caribbean to Europe, and trade goods from Europe to Africa.
Anocracy A country that is not fully democratic or fully autocratic , but rather displays a mix of the two types.
Autocracy a country that is run according to the interests of the ruler rather than the people.
balance of power Condition of roughly equal strength opposing countries or alliances of countries.
Boundary invisible line that marks the extent of a state's territory.
City-State a sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland.
Colonialism attempt by one country to establish settlements and to impose its political, economic, and cultural principles in another territory.
Colony a territory that is legally tied to a sovereign state rather than completely independent.
Compact State a state in which the distance from the center ti any boundary does not vary significantly.
Elongated State A state with a long, narrow shape.
Federal state an internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government.
Fragmented state A state that includes several discontinuous pieces of territory.
Frontier a zone separating two states in which neither state exercises political control.
Gerrymandering Process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the party in power.
landlocked State a state that does not have a direct outlet to the sea.
Multinational State State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determinism that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities.
Nation- State a state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicity that has been transformed into a nationality.
Perforated State a state that completely surrounds another one.
Prorupted State An otherwise compact state with a large projecting extension.
Self-Determinism Concept that ethnicities have the right to govern themselves.
Sovereignity ability of a state to govern its territory free from control of its internal affairs by other states.
State An area organized into a political unit and ruled by an established government with control over its internal and foreign affairs.
Terrorism the systematic use of violence by a group in order to intimidate a population or coerce a government into granting its demands.
Unitary State an internal organization of a state that places most power in the hands of central government officials.
Adolescent Fertility Rate The number of births per 1,00 women ages 15-19.
Developed Country A country that progressed further along the developed continuum.
Development the process of improving the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology.
fair trade a variation of the international trade model of development in which products are made and traded following practices and standards that protect workers and small businesses in developing countries.
Foreign Direct Investment The investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country.
Gender Inequality Index The index in which the higher the score the greater there is the greater the inequality between men and women, using reproductive health, empovernment and labor.
Gross Domestic product the value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year, but it does not account for money that leaves and enters the country.
Gross National Income the value of goods and services produced in a country in a year, including money that leaves and enters the country.
Human Development Index The index that considers the development to a function of three factors, a decent standard of living, a access to knowledge and a long and healthy life.
Inequality- Adjusted HDI Modifies the HDI to account for inequality.
Literacy Rate The percentage of a country's people who can read and write.
Maternal Mortality Ratio The number of women who die giving birth per 100,000 births.
Primary Sector The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
Productivity the value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it.
Secondary Sector the portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming , and assembling raw materials.
Structural Adjustment Program A program that has economic policies imposed encouraging international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corporations and charging citizens more for services.
Tertiary Sector the portion of the economy concerned with transportation , communications, and utilities , sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange to payment.
Value Added the gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials.
Created by: Raelee