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European History

AP Euro hist terms

TermDefinition
Great Famine Famine that affected northern Europe between 1315 and 1322. this would weaken the immune systems of a vast majority of Europeans, one of the factors that would help spread the Bubonic plague.
Black Death massive outbreak of bubonic plague that swept all of Europe in the 1340’s and 1350’s. The first estimated the black plague wiped out a third of the population of European its many visits. This event would help push Europe out of the middle ages into th
Buba the initial sign that the bubonic plague is present in a victim. This was a boil that was built-up pus that appeared in the neck, armpit, or groin. This was extremely painful, but if lanced and drained thoroughly, the victim had a chance of surviving.
Flagellants a radical group of monks formed during the time of the black plague. They believed the plague was an act of God to punish humanity for their sins. To remedy this dilemma, the flagellants would whip and scourge each other as penance.
Crecy battle during the Hundred Year’s War. Fought in 1346 in northern France, English longbowmen were hugely successful over the French army that fought there.
Agincourt battle fought during the Hundred Year’s War. Fought in 1415 near the city of Arras. In this battle Henry V of England scored a huge victory over French forces and would pave the way for the English to besiege the city of Paris by 1419.
Joan of Arc French peasant who is credited with being the driving force behind the ultimate French victory in the Hundred Year’s war. She went to the French court in 1428 and convinced the dauphin to claim his right to the throne. In 1429 she traveled with the Frenc
Representation the ability of one or more selected people to represent a group’s interests in a council or assembly. Between 1250 and 1450, representative assemblies flourished in many European countries. England had the parliament, the Germans had the diet, and Spain
Nationalism a feeling of unity and identity that binds a people together. During the Hundred Year’s war, both France and England fostered these feelings, and after military successes, both sides would admire their county’s military strength.
Babylonian Captivity the period of time (1309-1376) that the seat of power in the Catholic Church was moved from Rome to Avignon. The French king Phillip the Fair pressured the dying Pope Clement V to do this so he could control the church. This greatly damaged the church's
Schism the division of something. The name Great Schism was given to the time when the legally elected, but unpopular, Urban VI faced off with the illegally elected Clement VII (nicknamed the Antipope) for control of the catholic church.
Conciliarists believed that reform of the Catholic Church could best be achieved through periodic assemblies, or general councils, representing all the Christian people.
Merchet when peasants decided to get married the couple’s parents would have to pay this fine to the lord for the women’s marriage-since he was going to lose a worker.
Banns these are public announcements that a couple are planning to get wed. These were usually published on three successive Sundays before the wedding. This would allow for objections to the union.
Jacquerie French peasant revolt, this was in response to the heavy taxation for the Hundred Year’s War.
Racism in Latin Europe, this was based off of blood descent. This encompassed the feelings between colonists toward native peoples.
Dalimil Chronicle this was a survey of Bohemian history pervaded with Czech hostility toward Germans.
Statute of Kilkeny (1366) an attempt in Ireland to prevent intermarriage and protect the racial purity of English settlers.
Renaissance cultural achievements of the 14th through 16th centuries; those achievements rest on the economic and political developments of earlier centuries.
Communes sworn associations of free men seeking complete political and economic independence from local nobles. Examples would be the Northern Italian cities.
popolo disenfranchised people in Italian communes who resented their exclusion from power.
signori government by despot, one man rule in Italian cities such as Milan.
oligarchies governments by the merchant aristocracy in Italian cities, such as Venice and Florence.
republic non-monarchical government in which political power theoretically resides in the people and is exercised by its chosen representatives.
princely courts the place or space where despots or oligarchs lived, conducted business, and displayed their wealth and patronage of the arts.
individualism another basic feature of the Italian renaissance stressing personality, uniqueness, genius, self-consciousness.
humanism term first used by Florentine rhetorician Leonard Bruni as a general word for "the new learning" the critical study of Latin and Greek literature, with the goal of realized human potential.
secularism attitude that tends to find the ultimate explanation of everything and the final end of human beings in what reason and the senses can discover, rather than in any spiritual or transcendental belief.
The Prince (1513) treatise by Machiavelli on ways to gain, keep and expand power, because of its subsequent impact probably the most important literary work of the Renaissance.
gabelle; taille French tax on salt; French tax on land.
Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438) statement of French king Charles VII asserting royal control over church appointments and the superiority of a general council over the papacy.
royal council the body of men who happened to be with the king at a given time and usually including his chief officials; renaissance princes tended to prefer middle class councilors to noble ones.
court of Star Chamber a division of the English royal council, a court that used Roman legal procedures to curb real or potential threats from the nobility, the court so called because there were stars painted on the ceiling of the chamber in which the court sat.
justices of the peace English local officials in the shires appointed by the crown and given wide authority in local government.
hermandades popular groups in Spanish towns given royal authority to serve as local police forces and as judicial tribunals with the goal of reducing aristocratic violence.
New Christians term applied to Jews who accepted Christianity but since many had become Christian centuries earlier, the word "new" is not accurate; Spanish nationalism stressed "purity of blood."
pluralism clerical practice of holding more than one church benefice (or office) at the same time and enjoying the income from each.
The Imitation of Christ spiritual classic authored by Thomas a Kempis (c. 1380-1471) urging Christ as the model of Christian life and simplicity in living; widely read by laypeople, as well as by clergy.
ecumenical council church assembly theoretically representing all catholic countries and peoples, but that ideal was not achieved at the Lateran Council (1512-1517) nor at the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
indulgence papal statement (in document addressed to an individual) granting remission of priest-imposed penalty for sin (no one knew what penalty God would impose after death). Popular belief, however, held that an indulgence secured complete remission of all penal
Diet of worms series of imperial meetings (1521) at the bishop’s palace at Worms in the Rhineland where Luther defended his doctrines before the emperor Charles V. On 18 April Luther declared his final refusal to recant those doctrines, and on 26 May Charles V issued a
Protestant at the Diet of Speyer (1529) princes who favored church reforms along Lutheran lines protested decisions of the Catholic princes; hence, initially, Protestant meant Lutheran, but as other groups appeared, the term Protestant meant all non-Catholic Christi
transubstantiation Catholic doctrine of the Eucharist (ch. 10): that when the bread and wine (the elements) are consecrated by the priest at Mass, they are transformed into the actual Body and Blood of Christ.
consubstantiation Lutheran doctrine of the Eucharist: after consecration, the bread and wine undergo a spiritual change, become the Real Presence, but are not transformed.
Lord’s Supper Eucharistic doctrine espoused by Swiss reformer Zwingli whereby the Eucharist is a memorial of the Last Supper, but no changes occur in the elements.
preacherships offices, endowed by laypeople in many German towns, that required holders to give informed, well-prepared sermons; they helped pave the way for Protestant worship in which the sermon is the main part of the service.
German peasant revolts (1525) widespread uprising of German country people protesting economic and social injustices, and justifying the revolt with (a misinterpretation of) Luther’s doctrine.
The Institutes of the Christian Religion (definitive edition 1559) Calvin’s formulation of Christian doctrine, which became a systematic theology for Protestantism.
predestination Calvin’s teaching (based on his interpretation of Romans 8: 28-30, Ephesians 1: 3-14, and 2 Timothy 1:9) that by God’s decree some persons are guided to salvation, others to damnation; that God has called us not according to our works but according to His
Anabaptists general name given to several Protestant groups who believed that only adults could make an informed decision about baptism (and thus entry into the Christian community) and who therefore refused to have their children baptized. Because of their belief in
Book of Common Prayer (1559) official (parliament-approved) prayer book of the church of England, containing the prayers for all services, the forms for administration of the sacraments, and a manual for the ordination of deacons, priests, bishops.
Elizabethan Settlement term applied to English parliamentary laws passed early in Elizabeth’s reign that required conformity to the Church of England and uniformity of church worship.
Jesuits members of the Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius Loyola and approved by the papacy in 1540, whose goal was the spread of the Roman Catholic faith through humanistic schools and missionary activity. The Society stressed "modern" methods in its works, a
Holy Office official Roman Catholic agency founded in 1542 to combat international doctrinal heresy and to promote sounds doctrine on faith and morals.
Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559) agreement that ended six decades of war (fought mainly in Italy) between the French (Valois) kings and the Spanish (Habsburg) rulers. France was denied power in Italy.
Hugenots originally a pejorative term for French Calvinists, later the official title for members of the ‘Reformed religion", Calvinists.
St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre Begun 24 August 1572 and extending over several weeks, the most violent series of confrontations between French Catholics and Protestants, each side trying to secure control over the weak French government.
politiques moderates of both religious faiths who held that only a strong monarchy could save France from total collapse.
Edict of Nantes (1598) document issued by Henry IV of France granting liberty of conscience and of public worship to Calvinists in 150 towns; it helped restore peace in France.
bourse European stock exchange, i.e. group of people organized to provide an auction market among themselves for the buying and selling of securities in good. In the mid-16th century, the bourse at Antwerp was the largest in Europe.
Union of Utrecht (1581) alliance of 7 northern provinces (led by Holland) that declared its independence from Spain and formed the United Provinces of the Netherlands.
Escorial Spanish imperial palace built 1563-1584, combining a monastery, the tomb of Spanish Habsburgs, and a royal residence.
Spanish Armada (1588) fleet sent by Philip II of Spain against England, In his mind a religious crusade against Protestantism. Weather and the English fleet defeated it.
Protestant Union (1608)/Catholic League (1609) alliance of German Lutheran princes alarmed at religious and territorial spread of Calvinism and Catholicism/ Alliance of Catholic princes in response to the Protestant Union. The two armed camps erupted in the Thirty Years War (1618-1648).
Peace of Westphalia (1648) general name of a series of treaties that concluded the Thirty Years War; recognized the sovereign authority of 300+ German princes (and thereby the end of the Holy roman Empire as a viable state); among other provisions.
magnetic compass Chinese invention that allowed sailors to determine their position and direction at sea; astrolabe - Muslim instrument enabling navigators to plot latitude or position north and south of the equator.
astrolabe an instrument, developed by Muslim navigators in the twelfth century, that allowed mariners to plot their latitude by determining the altitude of the sun and other celestial bodies.
General History of the Indies (1547) a book by Spanish chronicler Fernando de Oviedo, providing an informed and reliable account of plants, animals, and peoples; widely read in Europe.
Golden Century of Spain title given to 16th century Spain, because of its enormous power and influence in Europe, a power that rested on Mexican and S. American gold and silver.
price revolution economic theory that the flood of South American bullion into Europe created widespread inflation or price rise; much disputed by scholars.
viceroyalties for administrative purposes, Spanish possessions in the Americas were divided in to 4 units called viceroyalties. The viceroy (imperial government) held broad civil and military authority and was assisted by a council of 12-15 judges.
quinto one-fifth: amount the Spanish crown was to receive of all precious metals mined in the Americas.
witch person usually a woman, believed to possess evil powers acquired by contract or association with the devil.
baroque controversial term applied to late 17th-early 18th century style of art that originated in Rome and is associated with the Catholic Reformation; characterized by emotional intensity, strong self-confidence, and a proselytizing spirit.
sovereignty the supreme authority in a political community; a modern state is said to be sovereign when it controls the instruments of justice (the courts) and the use of force (military and police powers) within geographical boundaries recognized by other states.
absolutism form of government in which sovereignty is vested in a single person, the king or queen; absolute monarchs in the 16th and 17th centuries based their authority on the theory of the divine right of king - i.e. that they had received their authority from Go
totalitarianism a 20th century development (and thus not to be confused with absolutism) that exalted the authority of the state and claimed that right to direct all facets of a state’s culture-law, art, education, economy, religion, etc. in the interests of the state, t
raison d’etat political theory articulated by French statesmen Richelieu (1585-1642) that holds that the interests and needs of the state may take precedence over traditional moral and international law.
Fronde series of violent uprisings during the minority of Louis XIV triggered by oppressive taxation of the common people, ambitions of the nobles; the last attempt of the French nobility to resist the king by arms.
mercantilism prevailing economic theory of European nations in 16th and 17th centuries. It rested on the premise that a nation’s power and wealth were determined by its supply of precious metal which were to be acquired by increasing exports and reducing imports.
French classicism style of French art, architecture, and literature (ca. 1600-1750), based on admiration and imitation of Greek and Roman models but with greater exuberance and complexity.
Peace of Utrecht (1713) series of treaties that ended the War of the Spanish Succession, ended French expansion in Europe, and marked the rise of the British Empire.
Don Quixote novel authored by Miguel de Cervantes, perhaps the greatest work of Spanish literature. A survey of the entire fabric of Spanish society that can be read on several levels: as a burlesque of chivalric romances; as an exploration of conflicting views (idea
constitutionalism implies a balance between authority and power of the government, and the rights and liberties of the subject or citizen; also the limitation of government by law and the rule of law; a constitution may be unwritten (British and Canadian) or written (USA).
Puritans members of a 18th century reform movement within the Church of England that advocated "purifying" it of Roman Catholic elements, such as bishops, elaborate ceremonial, the wedding ring. Calvinist in theology, Puritanism had broad cultural impact.
republican government In Europe, the term refers to non-monarchial government. In the American context, traditionally a state governed by representatives elected on a broad basis of suffrage who serve the interests of all the people.
Second Treatise on Civil Government (1690) by English political philosopher John Locke, a justification of the Glorious Revolution of 1688-89 and of the people’s right to rebel; a defense of the rights of property; it supported a system of checks and balances as embodied in the U.S. Constitution.
cabinet system political system where heads of governmental administrative departments serve as a group to advise the head of state (Prime Minister). All these ministers are drawn from the majority party in the legislature (in Britain the House of Commons).
States General term used by the national assembly of the United Provinces of the Netherlands where the wealthy merchant class held real power; because many issues had to be refereed back to the provinces, the United Provinces was a confederation.
stadholder its representative, or chief executive officer in each province; in the 17th century that position was held by the sons of William the Silent of the House of Orange and was largely ceremonial.
Dutch East India Company (1602-1798) a joint stock company chartered by the States-General of the Netherlands to expand trade and promote relations between the dutch government and its colonial ventures. It established a colony at the Cape of Good Hope (1652),
serfdom system used by nobles and rulers where peasants were bound first to the land they worked and then, by degrading obligations to the lords they served.
hereditary subjugation bound to their lords from one generation to the next as well as to the land.
absolutism system of ruling where monarchs reduced the political power of the landlord nobility as they gained and monopolized their own political power.
Bohemian Estates the representative body of the different estates, or legal orders in Bohemia.
sultan leader of Ottoman Empire who owned all the agricultural land of the empire and exploited it as he saw fit.
Pragmatic Sanction proclaimed by Charles VI in 1713, it stated that the Habsburg possessions were never to be divided and were always to be passed intact to a single heir, who might be female.
elector of Brandenburg the leader of the Brandenburg who had the right to choose the Holy Roman emperor with six other electors bestowed prestige but had not military power.
Junkers the nobility and landowning classes of the Estates of Brandenburg and Prussia.
Eastern Orthodoxy religion that rejects the authority of the pope, which is the main difference in religious and moral beliefs dividing it from Roman Catholicism.
boyard nobility boyard nobility the nobility in the feudal division of the eastern Slavic territories.
Mongol Yoke the name for the Mongolian rule over eastern Slavs for more than two hundred years.
autocracy a form of government led by a ruler with absolute power.
service nobility a newly emerging class who held the tsar’s land on the explicit condition that they serve in the tsar’s army.
Cossacks free groups and outlaw armies that were formed to fight Ivan in an attempt to escape his rule.
baroque a style of art that grew out of the revitalized Catholic Church of the late sixteenth century. Its complex, emotional style was used by many rulers, including Louis XIV of France, to glorify their power.
Created by: eradicator on 2005-03-14



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