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Anatomy & Physiology

Term/ Deffinition

Cell The basic structural unit of all organisms. Cells have three main parts: the cell membrane, the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
Cell membrane A bilayer of phospholipid and protein molecules that controles the passage of materials in and out of the cell.
Cytoplasm The medium for chemical reactions in the cell. It contains water, dissolved ions, nutrients and different organelles. The cytoplasm surrounds the nucleus and is encircled by the cell membrane
Nucleus The largest and innermost organelle in the cell. It is a roughly spherical body near the center of the cell and it contains DNA, which regulates the cell's activities.
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA consists of long chains of chemical bases along a surgar-phospate backbone; the chains are joined in pairs by bonds betwwen complementary bases and twist around each other in a double helix.
Chromatin The genetic material contained in the nucleus of a nondividing cell. It consists primarily of chromasomes, made of DNA bound in clumps to protein.
Nucleolus A dense body within the nucleus, also known as the little necleus, composed of DNA, RNA, and protein molecules. It is the site for synthesis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA).
RNA Ribonucleic acid. RNA consists of long, single chains of chemical bases along a sugar-phosphate back-bone. RNA molecules are transported from the nucleus into the cytoplasm, where they direct the formation of proteins.
Organelle A specialized part of a cell that performs a particular function.
Ribosome A granular cytoplasmic orgsnelle composed of RNA. Ribosomes provide enzyems that link amino acids for protein synthesis.
Mitochondrion A small, rod-shaped organelle that serves as the power plant of the cell because it provides energy.
Lysosomes Cytoplasmic particles that digest material that comes into the cell. They are often referred to as the garbage disposals of the cells because they break down nutrient molecules and foreign particles.
Endoplasmic reticulum A network of tubules that transports material through the cytoplasm and aids in the synthesis of proteins and lipids
Created by: jhamilton479