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BBC pharm

Ch. 50: CNS Stimulants

what are the two categories of CNS stimulants? psychomotor stimulants, psychomimetic drugs (LSD, PCP, THC)
psychomotor stimulants found in tea (theophyline), cocoa (theobromine), and coffee and coke (caffeine). methylxanthines
the number one stimulant in the world caffeine
low doses of caffeine cause.. increases alertness by stimulating the cortex and other brain areas.
at higher doeses what does caffeine do? causes anxiety, tremors, positive inotropy and chronotropy
major ADR of caffeine? premature ventricular contractions
at very high doses, what does caffeine do? causes spinal cord stimulation. lethal dose is 100 cups of coffee.
methylxanthines do what to smooth muscle? relzx them. working especially on the bronchioles.
of the methylxanthines, which has the strongest action of relaxing smooth muscles? theophyllines
whats another hting that methylxanthines do? inhibit PDE and block adenosine receptors (adenosine has an inhibitory effect on adenyl cyclase). the ed result is increased cAMP (and cGMP). this then results in increased overall decreased histamine release as well as increased calciu influx
can methylxanthines cause dependence? yes
AE of methylxanthine deprivation? lethargy, irritability, headache.
can methylxanthines cross the placenta? yes
this is a psychomotor stimulator. it is the active ingredient in tobacco. it is the second most used CNS stimulant in the world, and the second most abused drug (alcohol is number one). tolerance starts in only days. nicotine
at low doses nicotine does what to BP? increases BP, causes euphoria, arousal, relaxation, and improves attention, learning, and problem solving sills.
at high doses, what does nicotine do? binds up all receptors, essentially blocking them. as such, it decreases BP severely, and causes central respiratory paralysis and GI/bladder inactivity
ADRS of nicotine? irritability, tremors, intestinal cramps, diarrhea, increased heart rate, increased BP, increased metabolism of other drugs, etc.
psychomotr stimulant. its pharmacological uses include local anesthesia for ear, eye, nose, and throat procedures. it is highly addictive. it is a powerful stimulant of hte cortex and brainstem, actually increasing mental awareness cocaine
cocaine is areuptake inhibitor of which neurotransmitters? NE, seratonin, and dopamine. it potentiates and prolongs the CNS and peripheral actions of these neurotransmitters.
cocaine AE on heart? fatal cardiac arrhythmias, because of its adrenergic effects.
what is the biggest risk of someone going through cocaine withdrawal? suicide
what is the only local anesthetic that causes vasoconstriction cocaine
cocaine has similar effects as what other drug? amphetamines
MOA of amphetamines? releases intracellular stores of catecholamines as well as blocking MAO. they particularly are adept at releaseing high quantities of dopamine. they are used pharmacologically in depression, hyperactive children.
amphetamines stimulate what? the entire cerebrospinal axis, cortex, brainstem, and medulla
effects of ampheatmines? increase alertness, decreased appetitie, and insomnia. at high doses, they will cause seizures. they euphoria lasts longer than that with cocaine so the addictoin potential is less than cocaine. no tolerance to CNS toxicity
Created by: aferdo01