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Intro to Human body

Identify the organs in the human body and describe

QuestionAnswer
what is anatomy? study of structure
what is physiology? study of function
what are the increasing levels of structural complexity? molecule, organelles, cell, tissues, organ, organ system, organism
what is molecule? group of 2 or more atoms joined together
what is organelles? specialized structures that perform specific metabolic functions within the cells
what is a cell? basic biological unit of an organism
what is tissue? group of similar cells that perform a specific function
what is an organ? two or more tissues specialized to perform a specific function
what is an organ system? two or more organs that work together to perform a specific function
what is an organism? all the systems of the body that combine to make up a living being
describe the anatomical position. standing erect, arms at the sides, palms turned forward, feet flat on the floor
what is anterior? also called ventral; at the front of the body
what is posterior? also called dorsal; at the back of the body
what is superior? toward the head or the upper part of the body
what is inferior? away from the head or the lower part of the body
what is medial? nearer to or toward the midline
what is lateral? farther or away from the midline
what is ipsilateral? same side
what is contralateral? opposite side
what is proximal? nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk; close to the point of origin
what is distal? farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; away from the point of origin
what is superficial? toward or on the surface of the body
what is deep? away or further from the surface of the body
what is a plane? imaginary flat surface that pass through the body parts
what is a saggital plane? a vertical plane that divides the body or an organ into right and left sides
what is a midsaggital plane? a plane that passes through the midline of the body or an organ and divides it into equal right and left sides
what is a parasaggital plane? a plane that does not pass through midline but instead divides the body or an organ into unequal right and left sides
what is a frontal plane? also called coronal plane; divides the body or an organ into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions
what is a transverse plane? divides the body or an organ into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions; may also be called cross-sectional or horizontal plane
what is an oblique plane? a plane that passes through the body or an organ at an angle between the transverse plane and a saggital plane or between the transverse plane and the frontal plane
what is region pertains to the head? cephalic; divided into cranial (skull) and facial (face)
what regions pertain to the face? orbital (eye), otic (ear), nasal (nose), oral (mouth)
what region pertains to the neck? cervical
what anterior region pertains to the armpit? axillary
what anterior region pertains to the breastbone? sternal
what anterior region pertains to the breast? pectoral or mammary
what anterior region pertains to the navel? umbilical
what anterior region pertains to the hip? coxal
what anterior region pertains to the groin? inguinal
what anterior region pertains to the pubis? pubic
what anterior region pertains to the chest? thoracic
what anterior region pertains to the abdomen and pelvis? abdominopelvic
what region pertains to the arm? brachial
what region pertains to the forearm? antebrachial
what region pertains to the wrist? carpal
what region pertains to the palm? palmar
what region pertains to the fingers and toes? digital or phalangeal
what region pertains to the hand? manual
what anterior region pertains to the thigh? femoral
what anterior region pertains to the leg? crural
what anterior region pertains to the foot? pedal
what anterior region pertains to the ankle? tarsal
what posterior region pertains to the sole? plantar
what posterior region pertains to the heel? calcaneal
what posterior region pertains to the calf? sural
what pertains to the hollow behind knee? popliteal
what pertains to the buttock? gluteal
what posterior region pertains to the loin? lumbar
what posterior region pertains to between the hips? sacral
what pertains to the spinal column? vertebral
what pertains to the shoulder blade? scapular
what pertains to the shoulder? acromial
what are body cavities? dorsal and ventral cavities; spaces within the body that contain, d, separate, and support internal organs
what is the cranial cavity? formed by the cranial (skull) bones and contains the brain
what is the vertebral cavity? formed by the vertebral column (back bone) and contains spinal cord and the beginnings of spinal nerves
what are the major body cavities of the trunk? thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
what is thoracic cavity? chest cavity; contains pleural cavity (each surrounds a lung; pleura is a serous membrane) pericardial cavity (surrounds the heart; pericardium - serous membrane), and mediastinum
what is mediastinum? medial to the lungs; extends from sternum to vertebral column and from neck to diaphragm; contains the heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea and several large blood vessels
what is the abdominal cavity? contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of large intestine; peritoneum - its serous membrane)
what is the pelvic cavity? contains urinary bladder, portions of large intestine, and internal organs of reproduction
in which cavity is the urinary bladder located? pelvic cavity
in which cavity is the stomach located? abdominal cavity
in which cavity is the heart located? thoracic cavity
in which cavity is the small intestine located? abdominal cavity
in which cavity is the lungs located? thoracic cavity
in which cavity is the internal female reproductive organs located? pelvic cavity
in which cavity is the thymus located? thoracic cavity
in which cavity is the spleen located? abdominal cavity
in which cavity is the liver located? abdominal cavity
which of the following structures are contained in the mediastinum: right lung, heart, esophagus, spinal cord, aorta or left pleural cavity? heart and esophagus
what is diaphragm? dome-shaped muscle that powers breathing and separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
what is the abdominopelvic cavity? extends from the diaphragm to the groin
what is the term for organs inside the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities? viscera
what are quadrants? used to locate the site of pain, mass, or some abnormality; one horizontal and one vertical line passing through the umbilicus (navel) that divide the abdominopelvic cavity
name the 9 regions of the abdominopelvic cavity. right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac, right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar, right inguinal, hypogastric, left inguinal
name the abdominopelvic quadrants. righ upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), left lower quadrant (LLQ)
name the organs located in the epigastric region. stomach and liver
name the organs located in the left hypochondriac region. heart, diaphragm and left lung
name the organs located in the right lumbar region. gallbladder and large intestine (ascending colon)
name the organs in the umbilical region. small intestine and large intestine (transverse colon)
name the organs in the right hypochondriac region. right lung and part of the liver
name an organ in the right inguinal region. appendix
name an organ in the hypogastric region. urinary bladder
to properly reconnect the disconnected bones of a human skeleton, you would need to have a good understanding of? anatomy
what system transports oxygen, nutrients, and carbon dioxide? cardiovascular system
what system breaks down and absorbs food? digestive system
what system functions in body movement, posture, and heat production? muscular system
what system regulates body activities through hormones? endocrine system
what system supports and protects the body? skeletal system
what system eliminates wastes and regulates the chemical composition and volume of blood? urinary system
what system protects the bod, detects sensations, and helps regulate body temperature? integumentary system
Name the system and the major organs whose function is to regulate body activities by nerve impulses. nervous system; brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs
name the system and the function whose major organs are lymph vessels, spleen, thymus, tonsils, lymph nodes. lymphatic system; returns proteins and fluid to blood, protect against disease, carries lipids from digestive system to the blood
name the system and major organs whose function is to supply oxygen to cells, eliminate carbon dioxide, regulate acid-base balance. respiratory system; lungs, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes
name the major organs and functions of the reproductive system. testes, ovaries, vagine, penis, uterine tubes, uterus; reproduces the organism and releases hormones
what is homeostasis? tendency to maintain constant, favorable internal body conditions
what are the three elements of a feedback system? receptor, control center, and effector
describe how the feedback system works. some stimulus disrupts homeostasis by -> increasing or decreasing a controlled condition that is monitored by -> receptors that send -> input and monitor change -> control center -> receives the input and provides output -> send out nerve impulses or chem
differentiate positive from negative feedback system. positive feedback system strengthens a change in a controlled condition while negative feedback system reverses a change in a controlled condition.
name the 11 body systems. integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, cardiovascular, endocrine, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive system.
it is the system that regulates body temperature and detects sensations such as touch, pressure, pain, warmth and cold. integumentary system
what system regulates body activities through nerve impulses by detecting changes in the environment? nervous system
What system regulates the body activities through hormones transported by the blood to the organs? endocrine system
it is the system that supports the body, provides for muscle attachment and assists with body movements. skeletal system
it is the sytem that maintains posture and produces heat. muscular system
what system transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air? respiratory system
it is the system that returns proteins and fluid to blood and contains sites of maturation of B cells and T cells that protect against disease-causing microbes. lymphatic system
what system achieves physical and chemical breakdown of food and absorbs nutrients? digestive system
what system eliminates wastes and regulates volume and chemical composition of the blood? urinary system
what system regulates reproduction through producing gametes from testes that unite to form a new organism? reproductive system
name the components of nervous system. brain, spinal cord, nerves and sense organs like eyes and ears
name the components of endocrine system. all glands and tissues that produce hormones
name the components of integumentary system. skin, hair, nails, sweat and oil glands
name the components of skeletal system. bones, joints, cartilages
name the components of muscular system. skeletal muscle tissue, attached to bones, cardiac muscle tissue, and smooth muscle tissue
what are the components of cardiovascular system? heart, blood, blood vessels
what system transports oxygen and nutrients in the blood? cardiovascular system
what are the components of lymphatic system? spleen, thymus, lymph nodes and tonsils
what are the components of respiratory system? pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchial tubes
what are the components of digestive system? mouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, rectum and anus, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
what are the components of urinary system? kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra
what are the components of reproductive system? gonads (testes or ovaries), uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, epididymis, ductus (vas deferens) and penis
It is the sum of all the chemical processes that occur in the body. metabolism
it is the body's ability to detect and respond to changes in its internal or external environment. responsiveness
6 important life processes of humans. metabolism, responsiveness, movement, growth, differentiation, and reproduction
It includes motion of the whole body, organs, cells, and organelles. movement
it is an increase in body size may be due to increase in size of existing cells, number of cells. growth
It is the process whereby unspecialized cells become specialized cells. differentiation
it refers to either the formation of new cells for growth or replacement and the production of new individual reproduction
what is a feedback system? cycle of events in which a condition in the body is continually monitored, evaluated, changed, remonitored and reevaluated, etc.
any disruption that causes a change in a controlled condition. stimulus
monitored condition such as body temperature, blood pressure or blood glucose level. controlled condtion
body structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends information (input) to a control center. receptor
body structure that receives output from the control center and produces a response that changes the controlled condition. effector
any abnormality of structure and/or function. disorder
term for an illness characterized by recognizable set of symptoms and signs. disease
subjective changes in body functions that are not apparent to an observer. symptoms
objective changes that can be observed and measured. signs
a normal process characterized by a progressive decline in the body's ability to restore homeostasis. aging
words that describe the position of one body part relative to another. directional terms
spaces within the body that contain, protect, separate, and support internal organs. body cavities
it is the cavity that is formed by the skull and contains the brain. cranial cavity
it is the cavity that is formed by the bones of the vertebral column and the spinal cord. vertebral or spinal cavity
it is called the chest cavity and contains pleural, pericardial cavities and the mediastinum. thoracic cavity
the cavity that surrounds each lung. pleural cavity
the cavity that surrounds the heart. pericardial cavity
it the central portion between the lungs and extends from sternum to vertebral column and from neck to diaphragm; it contains the heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several large blood vessels. mediastinum
it contains the stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of large instestine; peritoneum is its serous membrane. abdominal cavity
it contains the urinary bladder, portions of large intestine and internal organs of reproduction. pelvic cavity
the science that deals with why, when, and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted within a defined human population. epidemiology
the science that deals with the medical problems and care of elderly persons. geriatrics
the science that deals with the nature, causes, and development of abnormal conditions and the structural and functional changes that disease produce. pathology
it is the science that deals with effects and use of drugs in the treatment of disease. pharmacology
a large part of the body's internal environment which surrounds all body cells. interstitial fluid
homeostasis ir regulated by these 2 systems acting together or separately. nervous system and endocrine system
a type of feedback system that reverses a change in controlled condition. negative feedback system (ex. system that regulates blood pressure: if a stimulus causes blood pressure to rise, receptors in blood vessels send impulses to the brain and the brain sends impulses to the heart, the effector which results to the decrease in
a type of feedback system that strengthens a change in controlled condition. positive feedback system
it separates the abdominopelvic cavity from the thoracic cavity. diaphragm
what is the term for organs in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities? viscera
name the viscera of the abdominal cavity. stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of the large intestine
name the viscera of the pelvic cavity. urinary bladder, portions of the large intestine, internal organs of the reproductive system
name the nine abdominopelvic regions. right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac; right lumbar, umbilical, left lumbar; right inguinal or iliac, hypogastric, left inguinal or iliac.
name the abdominopelvic quadrants. right upper quadrant (RUQ), left upper quadrant (LUQ), right lower quadrant (RLQ), left lower quadrant (LLQ)
Created by: practicalnurse on 2008-10-05



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