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Chapter 12

Nervous System

central nervous system (CNS) brain & spinal cord
peripheral nervous system cranial nerves & spinal nerves & branches from these nerves
nerve cell body axon & dendrite
axon takes signals away from cell body
dendrite takes signals toward cell body
neurotransmitter chemical that transmits signal from a nerve to another nerve or a muscle
myelin protect sheath around axon; increases speed of signal movement
neuroglia cell that supports neurons but doesn't send signal
Brain - four main divisions cerebral hemispheres & diencephalon & brainstem & cerebellum
cerebral hemispheres consciousness, judgments, voluntary actions
cerebral cortex gray matter (nerve cell bodies)
white matter axons
diencephalon thalamus (relay center) & hypothalamus (control center)
brainstem controls vital functions like heart rate & respiratory rate
cerebellum helps co-ordinate voluntary movements; helps with balance & equilibrium
brain dead none of the four parts are functioning; will die if not on respirator
persistent vegetative state brainstem still functioning so vital signs (breathing on own; heart beating) okay
spinal cord ascending tracts & descending tracts
ascending tracts sensory
descending tracts motor
dura mater "tough mother" most superficial layer
arachnoid "spider-like" middle layer
pia mater "soft mother" deepest layer
sensory neurons send signals toward central nervous system
motor neurons send signals toward periphery
somatic nervous system signal to skeletal muscles (voluntary)
autonomic nervous system signal to smooth muscle & cardiac muscle (involuntary) has two divisions
sympathetic fight or flight
parasympathetic predominate when at rest
meningitis inflammation of the meninges
meningocele herniation of meninges through defect in vertebral column
myelomeningocele herniation of spinal cord & meninges through defect in vertebral column
poliomyelitis inflammation of the gray matter of spinal cord
polyneuritis inflammation of many nerves
neurology study of the nervous system
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) stroke; caused by thrombosis or hemorrhage
transient ischemia attack (TIA) transient interference with blood supply to brain without permanent loss of function
Created by: fieldsl3