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Global Challenges

QuestionAnswer
Explain the greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenom, when greenhouse gases, water vapour (largest one), methane, CPC's , nitrious oxide. absorb outgoing long-wave radiatin from the Earth and send some of it back to the Earth's surface, which is warmed.
How many degrees does the green house effect warm earth by? 15
Without the greenhouse effect how much cooler would the earth be 30
Concentrations of greenhouse gases were constant at what until what century 280 ppm 19th century
what was the concentration of gases in 2007 430 ppm
What concentration of gases would leave to a tipping point , and what would the rise in temperature be 450 ppm and 2 degrees
Name 3 effects a global temperature rise of 2 degrees would have 53% of arctic tundra lost polar bears wiped out ice sheet covering 80% of greenland in irrecersivle retreat 97% if coral reefs killed 200 million more people at risk of hunger as drought increases in asia and africa
What happens in an el nino year Air pressure over the west coast of S.america becomes unusually low and that over n. Austrailia particularly high The normal east to west trade winds over pacific are disrupted and warm water slushes eastwards
What are the effects of an el nino year(1) rainfall reduced in southeast asia, n,z au and india leading to drought, crop failure and wildfires. Heavy rain in california,mexico landslides of peru and ecuador supression of cold current devestates fish catches off the coast of s.amer
What are the effects of an el nino year (2) unusually strong winds in the alantic sheer of the top of clouds preventing convection cells tornadoes are reduced more cyclones in hawaii but less in n aus southern aftica may experience drought flood in east asia
What happens in a la nina year air pressure is unusually high over the west coast of south america and low over northern australia the easterly trade winds are more intense then normal more warm water is pushed to the west of the pacific ocean
What are the effects of an la nino year rainfall is highl in indonesia and the phillippines and lower then normal on the west coast of s.America souther africa and s.e oz may experience floods eastern aftica , california and s.america may experience drough more hurricanes in caribbean and usa
Caribean savage storms (cuba) civil defence part of national security , world class meteorological, 48 hours vulnreble contacted , 12 hours people evacuated, education is strong, during charley and ivan 4 dead
Caribbean savage storms (jamaca) since hurricane gilbert in 1998 preparedness has paid off each parish has community disaster respone officers, maps drawn up , trained red cross helpers,wardens and gilbert anniversary practice drills voluntary though so need persuasion 14 dead ivan
Caribbean savage storms (Haiti) Political instability coup 7 months before, poverty lack of education 3,000 dead in hurrican jeanee
Caribeean storm (Dominican rupublic ) delivered maps, organised visits red cross outreach, civil defence, main problem is flooding (100mm in 24 hours) lacks equipment 20 dead ivan
Constructive earthquakes Two plates move apart, mantle under pressure, causing it to melt to magma, so rises and can form volcano, can jolt causing earthquakes and fault lines
Destructive earthqquakes When contenintal and oceanic crust move towards eachother, occeanic crust forced under, causing friction melt magma, get stuck earthquakes
Conservative two plates locked together (california)
Volcanic hotspots Hawii , magma rising from a large chamber
Phillipenes volcano Mount Pinatubo in 1991
Earthquakes phllipenes phillipene and eurasian plate can become locked together, fault lines as well , magnitude 7,8 occured on luzon island in 1990 killed 1500 people
Landslide Phillipenes leyte island in 2006 after heavy rainfall for 10 days a whole village was burried
Typhoons phillipenes Typoon Xangsane swept across manila and then the surronding densely peoplulated area in the north 2006 , high winds and torrential rainn destroyed homes
Typhoons Tsunamis 1976 magnitude 7.9 caused a tsunami that hit coast line around the muro gulf, thousands killed
Long term climate measures 1. ice cores (40,0000 years) 2. Pollen analysis 3.sea levels
Medium term climate measure 1. books, paintings 2.Glaciars 3.Tree rings
Short term 1. accurate climate data since 1861 2 polar ice melt 3.eco system changes
Other causes for climate change Astronomical forcing developed in 1824, changes in earths orbit and tilt , makes a differnce
Sun spots cycle of 11 years
Volcanos and global warmng Eruption of Mount Tambora in Indonesia in 185 reduced global temp by .5 degrees
Sea levels thermal exmpansion as well as ice melting sea levels could rise between 8 and 80 cm for every degree rise in temp. Ipcc thinks sea levels could rise between 18 and 59 cm next century
Bangladesh sea some 70% on flood plains less then 6m above sea level, could lose 20% of land displacing up to 40 million people
Maldives .5m rise would submerge most of the country
Artic case study some scientest believe there will be no ice in the summer by 2030 permafrost is shrinking habitats lost fish diversity increase new natural resources potential for farming
Africa case study Decreasing agriculture production , the sahel region agriculture forms 70% of employment, mozambique drought in 1995, increased maleria and 80% of treatment is natural
Adapting to climate change Tuvalu(background) small state in the pacific ocean , that gained independene from the uk in 1978 in 2005 population was 10,500 spread over nine islands none more then 5m above sea level econonomy relies on fishing faming and aid they are vunreble to floodingn
tuvalu adaption relocate 2001 new zealent agreed to accept 75 as refuges until 2050 in 2000 it joined the un , beach mining it being regulated and salt crops may be an option. It has a tiny gdp of 12 million, if the ipcc forcast is correct much will be inhabitable
Water shortages populations are increasing, world bank estimates as much as 50% of the population will face severe water shortages by 2025 for example the himalayas glaciers are disaperaing this s a water source for colombia
Solar island in 1996 the west bengal renewable energy development association begun a medium scale solar power development, meaning diesel gernerator power stations have being replaced
low carbon wolvercote oxfordshire each road has waste champtions who organise rubbish swaps information is circulated car shares for work given advice of sustanible living
Created by: 100001024950166