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# Astronomy Chapter 4

### Astronomy

speed how far an object will travel in a certain amount of time
velocity how far and in what direction an object will travel
acceleration change in velocity
acceleration of gravity acceleration of a falling object in m per sec
momentum product of mass times velocity
force change applied to an object's momentum
net force overall force acting on an object
angular momentum circular momentum
torque twisting force that can change an objects angular momentum
mass amount of matter
weight force that a scale measures
free-fall falling without resistance
weightlessness in a state of free-fall
Newton's First Law An object moves at constant velocity if there is no net force acting upon it
Newton's Second Law Force = mass x acceleration (F=ma)
Newton's Third Law For any action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
conservation of momentum total momentum of interacting objects cannot change
conservation of angular momentum as long as there is no external torque, the total angular momentum of interacting objects cannot change
conservation of energy energy cannot appear out of nowhere or disappear into nothing
kinetic energy energy of motion
radiative energy energy carried by light
potential energy stored energy
thermal energy collective kinetic energy moving within a substance
temperature measures average kinetic energy of particles
gravitational potential energy how much mass an object has and how far it can fall
mass-energy energy contained in mass itself (E=mc^2)
law of gravitation Fg = GM1M2/d^2
bound orbit ellipse
unbound orbits ellipse, parabola, hyperbola
gravitational encounter when two objects pass close enough to exchange orbital energy
escape velocity amount of energy needed by an object to clear a gravitational field of orbit
tidal force difference in gravitational forces that causes two tidal bulges
tidal friction tidal forces stretching the earth
synchronous rotation moon always shows the same face to Earth because of tidal friction
Created by: sgw005