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AP Government 8

AP Government - Chapter 8 Vocabulary

Chapter 8 TermsDefinitions
Incumbent The person currently in office.
Coattails The tendency of lesser-known or weaker candidates to profit in an election by the presence on the ticket of a more popular candidate.
Political Action Committee (PAC) A committee set up and representing a corporation, labor union, or special-interest group that raises and spends campaign contributions on behalf of one or more candidates or causes.
Malapportionment Drawing the boundaries of political districts so that districts are very unequal in population.
Gerrymandering Drawing the boundaries of political districts in bizarre or unusual shapes to make it easy for candidates of the party in power to win elections in those districts.
Sophomore surge An increase in the votes that congressional candidates usually get when they first run for reelection.
Position Issue An issue dividing the electorate on which rival parties adopt different policy positions to attract voters.
Valence Issue An issue on which voters distinguish rival parties by the degree to which the associate each party or candidate with conditions, goals, or symbols the electorate universally approves or disapproves of.
General Election An election used to fill an elective office.
Primary election An election prior to the general election in which voters select the candidates who will run on each party's ticket.
Closed Primary A primary election that permits voters to choose on election day the primary in which they wish to vote. They may vote for candidates of only one party.
Open Primary A primary election that permits voters to choose on election day the primary in which they wish to vote. They may vote for candidates of only one party.
Blanket Primary A primary election that permits all voters, regardless of party, to choose candidates.
Runoff Primary A second primary election held in some states when no candidate receives a majority of the votes in the first primary. The runoff is between the two candidates with the most votes. Runoff primaries are common in the south.
Presidential Primary A primary held to select delegates to the presidential nominating conventions of the major parties and is held before presidential elections
Independent expenditure Spending by political action commttees of political matters that is done directly and not by givnig money to a candidate or party.
Soft money Funds solicited from individuals, corporations, and unions that are spent on party activites rather than on behalf of a specific candidate. These funds need not be reported to the Federal Election Commisions.
Prospective Voting Voting for a candidate because one favors his or her ideas for addressing issues after the elections.
Retrospective Voting Voting for or against the candidate or pary in office because one likes or dislikes how things have gone in the recent past.
Created by: monkeykist on 2005-03-09



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