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Patho. Cardio

Pathophysiology

QuestionAnswer
Describe the heart. A hollow, muscular organ located in the center of the thorax, where it occupies the space between the lungs and rests on the diaphragm.
How much does the heart weight? 300 grams (10.6 oz).
How is the heart's weight determined? By the patient's age, weight, exercise, and heart disease.
What is the function of the heart? To pump blood to the tissues, supplying them with oxygen and other nutrients while removing carbon dioxide and other waste products of metabolism.
How much blood does the heart pump? Varies according to body build, but is generally 70 ml per contraction.
What is the cardiac output per minute? Approximately 5 liters.
Where is the mediasinum located? The area in the middle of the chest between the two lungs; the bulk of the mediastinal space is occupied by the heart, which in encased in the pericardium.
What is the pericardium? A thin, fibrous sac which encases the heart.
What is the pericardium protecting the heart against? Trauma and infection.
Parietal pericardium The tough, fibrous outer membrane.
Visceral pericardium The thin, inner layer that closely adheres to the heart (next to the epicardium).
This membrane protects the surface of the heart, but is NOT essential for the heart to function properly. Pericaridum
How much fluid is located between the heart and the pericardial lining and what are its functions? 5-20 ml of fluid which lubricates the surface, cushions the heart, and reduces friction during contraction of the cardiac muscle.
What chambers make up the heart? Atrium and ventricle.
What is the common wall between the right and left chambers called? The septum.
What chamber is responsible for ejecting blood into the arteries? The ventricles.
What are the functions of the atria? To receive incoming blood from the veins and act as temporary storage reservoirs from which the blood empties into the ventricles.
How many valves are in the heart and what are their functions? 4 valves wich ensure that blood does not flow in the wrong direction.
What are the valves composed of? Thin, leaflets of fibrous tissue, open and close passively in response to pressure changes and blood movement.
Name the two types of cardiac valves. Atrioventricular and semilunar.
Valves that separate the atria from the ventricles. Atrioventricular valves.
What are the atrioventricular valves composed of? Tricuspid valve, biscuspid valve, papillary muscles, and chordae tendineae.
What to components of the atrioventricular valves attach only to the bicuspid (mitral) and tricuspid valves? Papillary muscles and chordae.
Named because it is composed of 3 cusps, or leaflets, separates the right atrium from the right ventricle. Tricuspid valve.
2 cusps whcih lie between the left atrium and the left ventricle. Bicuspid (mitral) valve.
Muscle bundles located on the sides of the ventricular walls. Papillary muscles.
Fibrous bands extending from papillary muscles to the edges of the valve leaflets. Chordae tendineae.
Situated between each ventricle and its corresponding artery. Semilunar valves.
What makes up the semilunar valves? Pulmonic valve and aortic valve.
The valve between the right ventricle and the pumonary artery. Pulmonic valve.
The valve between the left ventricle and aorta. Aortic valve.
Coronary arteries. The vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle, which has large metabolic requirements for oxygen and nutrients.
How much oxygen does the heart use? 70-80% delivered by the coronary arteries. Other organs use about 1/4 of the oxygen.
Where do the coronary arteries arise from? The aorta near its origin at the left ventricle.
Name the components of the coronary arteries. Left main coronary artery (left anterior descending artery and cirumflex artery) and the right coronary artery.
What is the function of the left main coronary artery? To supply blood to the left side of the heart by dividing into several large branches.
Runs down the left side of the heart. Left anterior descending artery.
Runs across the left side of the heart. Cirumflex artery.
What is the function of the right coronary artery? To supply blood to the right side of the heart. The coronary arteries are perfused (passage of fluid) during diastole (period between contractions).
Specialized muscle tissue composing the wall of the heart. Cardiac muscles.
How are cardiac muscle fibers arranged? In an interconnected manner (syncytium) so that they can contract and relax in a coordinated manner.
What are the 3 cardiac muscles? Myocardium, endocardium, epicardium.
The heart muscle itself. Myocardium.
The inner lining of the myocardium which is in contact with the blood. Endocardium.
The outer layer of the cells. Epicardium.
What is the function of the conduction system? Generate and coordinate the transmission of electrical impulses to the myocardial cells.
What is the result of the conduction system? Sequential atrioventricular contraction, which provides for the most effective flow of blood, thereby optimiizing cardiac output.
Name the components of the conduction system. SA node, AV node, Bundle of HIS, and purkinje fibers.
Located at the junction of the superior vena cave and the right atrium. The beginning of the conduction system. SA node.
What is the function of the SA node? Normally functions as the pacemaker for the entire myocardium.
How many pulses does the SA node initiate in a resting normal heart. 60-100 impulses per minute.
Where does the electrical signale initiated by the SA node travel? It is conducted along the myocardial cells of the atrium to the AV node.
Located in the right atrial wall near the trisucpid valve, but this group of specialized cells have an intrinsic rate of 40-60 impulses per minute. AV node.
What does the AV node do? Coordinates the incoming electrical impulses from the atria and, after a slight delay, relays an impulse to the ventricles.
How is the AV node's impulses conducted? Through a bundle of specialized muscle fibers (bundle of HIS) that travel in the septum separating the left and right ventricles.
Bundle of HIS Divides into the right and left bundle branches, which terminate in fibers called the Purkinje fibers.
Where does the right bundle of the Purkinje fibers lead? Fans out into the right ventricular muscle.
What happens to the left bundle? It divides again into the left anterior and left posterior bundle branches, which fan out into the left ventricular muscle.
How is the heart rate determined? By the myocardial cells with the fastest intrinsic rate. Normally, the SA node is fastest.
What happens if the SA node malfunctions? The AV node will take over the pacemaker function of the heart.
What if the AV and SA nodes fail? The myocardium will continue to beat at a rate of less than 40 beats per minute, which is the intrinsic pacemaker rate of the ventricular cells.
The amount of blood pumped by the ventricles during a given period? Cardiac output.
What is the cardiac output of a typical adult? 4-8 L/min but varies greatly depending on the metabolic needs of the body.
Stroke volume (SV) x Heart rate (HR)=? Cardiac output (CO).
Amount of blood ejected per heartbeat? Stroke volume.
What is the average heart rate and stroke volume for an adult? HR: 60-80 beats/minute. SV: 70 ml/beat
What are the 3 factors that control stroke volume? Intrinsic contractility of the heart muscle, degree of stretch of cardiac muscle before contraction (preload), the pressure against which heart muscle has to eject blood during contraction (afterload).
What is the structure of blood vessels in systemic circulatio? Tunica intima, tunica media, tunica adventitia.
Innermost layer of blood vessels. Tunica intima.
Middle layer (smooth muscle) of blood vessels. Tunica media.
Outermost layer (connective tissue) of blood vessels. Tunica adventitia.
Example of the structure of blood vessels. Tunica media of arteries close to the heart have a greater proportion of elastic fibers bc arteries must be able to distend during systole and recoil during diastole.
Example of the stucture of blood vessels. Arteries further away from the heart contain a greater proportion of smooth muscle fibers bc arteries must be able to constrict and dilate to control BP and volume w/in capillary beds.
Blood flow: ventricles-->aorta-->arteries-->arterioles & capillaries (smallest of arterial vessels)
Where do oxygen, nutrients, and other substances needed for cellular metabolism travel? They pass from the capillaries into the interstitium.
Venules Smallest veins; receive capillary blood.
Venous blood Flows into larger and larger veins until it reaches the vena cava and then into the atrium.
Created by: shanhaup on 2008-09-30



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