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Chapter 19

Common Blood Chemistry Tests (Melinda Hanson)

Albumin aminotransferase (ALT) Detects liver disease Reference range: 45 U/L or less
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) Assists in dx of liver & bone disease Reference range: 25-140 U/L
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) Detects tissue damage Reference range: 40 U/L pr less
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) Screens for renal disease, especially glomerular functioning Reference range: 7-25 mg/dL
Calcium (CA) To assess parathyroid functioning & calcium metabolism & evaluate malignancies Reference range: 8.5- 10.8 mg/dL
Chloride (Cl) Assists in diagnosing disorders of acid-base & water balance Reference range: 96-109 mmol/L
Cholesterol (Chol) To screen for atherosclerosis related to coronary artery disease; secondary aid in study of thyroid & liver functioning Reference range: (desirable) Less than 200 mg/dL
Low Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Complex molecules found in cholesterol; picks up cholesterol from ingested fats & the liver, delivers to blood vessels & muscles; aka bad cholesterol Reference range: (optimal)less than 100 mg/dL
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Complex molecule found in cholesterol; removes excess cholesterol from the cells & carries it to the liver to be excretes; aka good cholesterol Reference range: (optimal)60 mg/dL or greater
Creatinine (Creat) Screening test of renal functioning Reference range: 0.6-1.5 mg/dL
Globulin (Glob) To identify abnormalities in rate of protein synthesis & removal Reference range: 2-3.4 g/dL
Glucose To detect disorders of glucose metabolism Reference range: varies
Fasting blood glucose (FBG) or Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) Blood sugar done with patient having NPO for 12 hours prior to test. Reference ranges: Normal 70-99 mg/dL
2 hour postprndial blood sugar (2-hr PPBS) Often performed on patients with DM to eval progress & regulate tx OR as routine screening to detect DM. The patient fasts after midnight; breakfast contains 100 g of carbs OR drinks a glucose solution. Reference range: Less than 140 mg/dL
Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) Provides more detailed info about the ability of the body to metabolize blucose by assessing the insulin response to a glucose load. Reference range: 139 mg/dL or less
Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) Assists in confirming myocardial or pulmonary infarction; also used in differential dx of MD and pernicious anemia Reference range: 240 UL or less
Phosphorus (P) Assists in proper eval & interpretation of calcium levels; used to detect disorders of endocrine system, bone diseases & kidney function Reference range 2.5- 4.5
Potassium (K) To dx disorders or acid-base & water balance in the body Reference range: 3.5-5.3 mmol/L
Sodium (NA) To detect changes in water & salt balance in the body Reference range: 135-147mmol/l
Total bilirubin (TB) To evaluate liver functioning & hemolytic anemia Reference range: 0.2-1.3 mg/dL
Total protein (TP) Screens for diseases that alter protein balance & assesses state of body hydration Reference range 4.5- 12 ug/dL
Triglycerides (Trig) To evaluate patients with suspected atherosclerosis Reference range: Less than 150 mg/dL
Uric acid (UA) To evaluate renal failure, gout & leukemia Reference range: Male 3.9-9mg/dL Female 2.2-7.7 mg/dL
Created by: melindahanson