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Chapter 21, 22, 23

Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Agricultural revolution The change from nomadic hunting and gathering to farming that took place about 8000b.c.
Civilization An advanced culture
Monotheism The belief in one god
Protectorate An area that has its own government but is controlled by an outside power
Chaparral A type of natural vegetation that is adapted to Mediterranean climates; small evergreen trees and low bushes, or scrub
Poaching Illegal hunting
Mosque An Islamic place of religious worship
Muezzin In Islam, a crier who calls the faithful to prayer five times each day from a minaret
minaret A tall, slender tower attached to a mosque
Desalination plant The process of removing salt from seawater so that it can be used for drinking and irrigation
Nomad A person who travels from place to place
Trade deficit The situation in which a country imports more than it exports
Trade surplus The situation in which a country exports more than it imports
Autonomy Independence
Genocide The systematic killing or intentional destruction of a people
Nationalism Pride in ones nation; the desire of a cultural group to rule themselves as a separate nation
Chernozem A rich topsoil found in the Russian steppes and other mid-latitude grasslands
Fundamentalism A set of religious beliefs based on a strict interpretation of a sacred text
Yurt A round tent made of a wooden framework and covered with felt of skins
Desertification The transformation of arable land into desert either naturally or through human intervention
Mandate A commission from the League of Nations authorizing a nation to govern a territory
Zionist A member of a movement know as Zionism, founded to promote the establishment of an independent Jewish state
Self-determination The right of a people to decide their own political future
Drip Irrigation A process by which precisely controlled amounts of water drip directly onto plants from pipes, thus preserving precious water resourced in dry areas
Potash A mineral used in explosives and fertilizers
Fertile Crescent A region in the Middle East where farming and the first civilizations developed
Militia A citizen army
Anarchy Political disorder and violence; lawlessness
Embargo A severe restriction of trade with other countries
Infrastructure The basic support facilities of a community or country, such as roads and bridges, power plants, and schools
Falaj System In the Arabian Peninsula, and ancient system of underground and surface canals
Secular Worldly, not relating to religion
Shah The title of the former ruler of Iran
Ayatollah A religious leader among Shiite Muslims
Created by: jenniferbarron