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PT 62 Exam 5 Review

Cerebral Palsy & Neural Tube Defects

This means it is not a progressive disorder, that the disorder or disease process will not get worse as time goes on. What is meant by "cerebral palsy is a static disorder?"
This type of Cerebral Palsy affects only one side of a person's body; usually the arm is more affected than the leg Spastic Hemiplegia
Mostly rigid / tense muscles. Legs are mainly affected. May have athetosis and balance problem Spastic Diplegia
A child with CP has involvement of both arms and legs (all 4 extremities) and inability to control muscles. Athetoid quadriplegia
People have noticeably “floppy” muscles and no control of their head. The arms and legs hang down like a “rag doll.” Joints may be lax. Reflexes may be poor, and walking is usually difficult. Hypotonic hemiplegia
Phase in which food is moved past the airway to the esophagus Pharyngeal transfer
The bolus is pushed backward by the tongue toward the pharynx Oral transport
Peristaltic waves moves the bolus down the esophagus toward stomach. Esophageal transport
Food is taken into the mouth and processed to a manageable consistency Oral preparatory
Sometimes occur insidiously and sometimes suddenly, beginning with fever, vomiting, headache, irritability, photophobia, and nuchal rigidity (pain and stiffness in the neck when flexed) Signs of meningitis
It is a condition whose defining characteristics is an excess of fluid within the cranial vault, the subarachnoid space or both. It is caused by an imbalance between the production and the absorption of CSF within the ventricular system. Hydrocephalus
Cerebral Palsy is a collection of motor disorders resulting from damage to the brain before birth, during birth or after birth True
A term used to describe motor impairment resulting from brain damage in the young child, regardless of the cause of the damage or its effect on the child. Cerebral Palsy
The correct term to use to define a deviation from the normal, such as not being able to make a muscle move or not able to control an unwanted movement. Impairment
This form of spina bifida rarely causes disability or symptoms. The mildest and most common form in which one or more vertebrae are malformed. (Malformation, or opening in the spine, is covered by a layer of skin.) Occulta (Hidden)
Spinal fluid and the meninges protrude through an abnormal vertebral opening; the malformation contains no neural elements and may or may not be covered by a layer of skin. Some individuals may have few or no symptoms. Meningocele (Sac without spinal cord)
This form consists of a diverse group of spinal defects in which the spinal cord is marked by a malformation of fat, bone, or membranes. Few or no symptom in some; in other causes partial paralysis w/ urinary & bowel dysfunction. Closed neural tube defects
Is the most severe and occurs when the spinal cord/neural elements are exposed through the opening in the spine, resulting in partial or complete motor paralysis and sensory deficits within the parts of the body below the spinal opening. Myelomeningocele (Sac contains spinal cord)
a group of problems that occur in a newborn who was exposed to addictive illegal or prescription drugs while in the mother’s womb (Opioid, cracks, heroin and meth). Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)
A disorder in which the two eyes do not line up in the same direction, and therefore do not look at the same object at the same time. Strabismus (cross eye)
Is the loss of one eye's ability to see details. Visual stimulation either fails to be transmitted or is poorly transmitted through the optic nerve to the brain for a continuous period of time. Amblyopia (crazy eye)
A permanent visual impairment caused by damage to the optic nerve. When some of these nerve fibers are damaged through disease, the brain doesn't receive complete vision information and sight becomes blurred. Optic atrophy (Shrinking optic nerve due to damage)
Term to describe fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes that may be side to side; up and down; rotary (torsional nystagmus). Depending on the cause, these movements may be in both eyes or just one eye. Nystagmus (Jerking movements of the eye in a vertical or horizontal direction)
Stimulated by the active or passive rotation of the head. As the head is turned to one side the arm and leg on the same side as the chin extend, while the opposite arm & led flex (prevents child from rolling over). Asymmetrical tonic neck reflex
Stimulated by the position of the labyrinth inside the inner ea. Placed in prone position and neck is flexed shoulders roll in & legs flex (prevents child from sitting) Tonic labyrinthine reflex
When the balls of the feet touch a firm surface, the child extends the legs. This reflex enables the typical newborn to support weight while standing (this reflex interferes with standing and walking in the person with CP). Positive support reflex
When the infant is tilted so his or her legs are above their head, the arms will extend. Usually disappear by six months. Moro reflex (startle)-
What is another term for Rubella? German Measles
What is an infection caused by the invasion of parasitic microorganisms? Toxoplasmosis
A virus than can cause injury to the fetus's brain. Cytomegalovirus
Premature infants are at a much higher risk for developing cerebral palsy than full-term babies, and risk increases as the birth weight decreases. True
Asphyxia is a primary cause of Cerebral Palsy False
What is inflammation of the meningies called? Meningitis
What term is used to denote brain inflammation? Encephalitis
Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex prevents a child from rolling over. True
Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex will prevent a child from siting. True
Positive support Reflex interferes with standing and walking in the person with Cerebral Palsy. True
What is the common cause of neonatal seizures? Anoxia, intracerebral hemorrhage, brain malformations, hypocalcemia, sepsis, hypoglycemia.
Jerking movements of the eye in a vertical or horizontal direction? Nystagmus
Malformation of the skull that allows the brain to protrude, the brain is usually malformed. Most cases occur in the occipital area (back of head). Encephalocele
This is a more severe congenital disorder or malformation of the skull and the brain. There is no neural development above the brainstem (Most primitive part of brain)! Spontaneous abortion usually occurs, those that are live born rarely survive. Anencephaly
This is the most common NTD. This condition causes a split of a section of the vertebral arches. The split may be isolated or occur with a protruding sac called a meningeal sac. This sac may contain a portion of the spinal cord. Spina bifida
The first step in the formation of the CNS which begins about 26 days after fertilization Neurulation
This groove folds over to become the neural tube. Neural groove
This develops into the spinal cord and vertebral arches. Neural tube
Two days separate the risk of getting anencephaly or forming a meningomyelocele Window of opportunity
Depigmented or hypopigmented (lacking normal skin color) white lesions that have the shape or appearance of an ash leaf and may appear anywhere on the body Ash Leaves
These appear on the lower back as raised patches of skin with an orange-peel texture Shagreen patches
These lesions include red, highly vascular lumps on the face that may resemble irritated acne. These enlarge with age and may run together (become confluent) to form larger patches Adenoma sebaceum (angiofibroma)
Pigmented, raised spots on the colored part (iris) of the eye. Lisch nodules
Created by: Egin