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hilum indentation in the medial side of each kidney where the renal artery enters and the renal vein and ureter exit
major calyx where several minor calices drain urine into
minor calyx an area that collects urine
renal pelvis large, funnel-shaped area within each kidney. it collects urine from the major calices and then narrows to become the ureter
ureter tube that carries urine from the pelvis of the kidney to the bladder
peristalsis process of smooth muscle contractions that move urine through the ureter
vesical pertaining to the bladder
rugae folds in the mucosa of the bladder that disappear as the bladder fills with urine
urethral meatus opening to the outside of the body at the end of the urethra
external urethral sphincter muscular ring in the urethra. it can be consciously controlled to release or hold back urine
prostate gland that is part of the male reproductive system
glomerulus network of intertwining capillaries within the glomerular capsule; filtration takes place there
proximal convoluted tubule tubule of the nephron that begins at the glomerular capsule and ends at the nephron loop. reabsorption takes place there
nephron microscopic functional unit of the kidney
nephron loop tubule of the nephron that is u-shaped; begins at the proximal convoluted tubule and ends at the distal convoluted tubule; reabsorption takes place there
micturition passing water
glomerulonephritis inflammation of the glomerulus and kidney
hydronephrosis condition of water or fluid in the kidneys
nephrolithiasis state of a kidney stone
diabetic nephropathy involves progressive damage to the glomeruli because of diabetes mellitus
nephroptosis state of prolapsing in the kidney
ascites a grossly enlarged, fluid-distended abdomen
polycystic kidney disease disease pertaining to many semi-solid cysts of the kidney
pyelonephritis inflammation of the renal pelvis kidney
acute renal failure occurs suddenly and is usually due to trauma, sever blood loss, or overwhelming infection
chronic renal failure begins with renal insufficiency, followed by gradual worsening with progressive damage to the kidneys from chronic, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or glomerulonephritis
uremia an excessive amount of the waste product urea in the blood because of renal failure
interstitial cystitis chronic, progressive infection in which the bladder mucosa becomes extremely irritated and red, with bleeding
cystocele a hernia in the bladder
neurogenic bladder urinary retention due to a lack of innervation of the nerves of the bladder
urinary retention inability to empty the bladder because of an obstruction, never damage, or as a side effect of certain drugs
vesicovaginal fistula formation of an abnormal passageway connecting the bladder to the vagina
epispadias congenital condition in which the female urethral meatus is in an abnormal location near the clitoris, or the male urethral is in an abnormal location on the upper surface of the shaft of the penis
urethritis inflammation or infection of the urethra
proteinuria condition where there is protein in the urine
anuria absence of urine production by the kidneys because of acute or chronic renal failure
bacteriuria presence of bacteria in the urine
dysuria difficult or painful urination
enuresis involuntary release of urine in an otherwise normal person who should have bladder control
glucosuria glucose in the urine
hematuria blood in the urine
incontinence inability to voluntarily keep urine in the bladder
ketonuria ketone bodies in the urine
nocturia increased frequency and urgency of urination during the night
oliguria decreased production of urine due to kidney failure
polyuria excessive production of urine due to diabetes mellitus or diabetes insipidus
pyuria WBCs in the urine, indicating a urinary tract infection
blood urea nitrogen measures the amount of urea. used to monitor kidney function and the progression of kidney disease or to watch for signs of nephrotoxicity in patients taking aminoglycoside antibiotic drugs
culture and sensitivity puts urine onto culture medium in a petri dish to identify the cause of a urinary tract infection.
leukocyte esterase detects esterase, an enzyme associated with leukocytes and a urinary tract infection.
24-hour creatinine clearance collects all urine for 24 hours to measure the total amount of creatinine "cleared" by the kidneys
urinalysis describes the urine and detects substances in it
specific gravity measurement of the concentration of the urine as compared to that of water
acidic has a pH lower than 7
alkaline has a pH higher than 7
urinometer handheld instrument that uses light rays that are bent by a thin layer of urine spread on glass
intravenous pyelography uses x-rays and radiopaque contrast dye. records the renal pelvis
nephrotomography uses a CAT scan and radiopaque contrast dye injected intravenously. takes x-ray images as multiple slices through the kidney
renal angiography uses x-rays and radiopaque contrast dye. the dye flows through the blood into the renal artery and outlines the renal artery to show an obstruction or blockage
renal scan uses radioactive isotopes that are injected intravenously. it is taken up by the kidney and emits radioactive particles that are captured by a scanner and made into an image
voiding cystourethrogram uses x-rays and radiopaque dye. the dye is inserted into the bladder through a catheter and outlines the bladder and urethra. the x-ray image is taken while the patient is urinating.
catherterization procedure where a catheter is inserted through the urethra and into the bladder to drain the urine
suprapubic catheter inserted through the abdominal wall and into the bladder
hemodialysis uses a shunt or a fistula to allow easy and reliable access to the blood
peritoneal dialysis uses a permanent catheter inserted through the abdominal wall
cystoscopy uses a rigid or flexible cystoscope inserted through the urethra in order to examine the bladder
nephrectomy procedure to surgically remove a diseased or cancerous kidney
lithotripsy uses sound waves to break up a kidney stone
nephrolithotomy procedure in which a small incision is made in the skin and an endoscope is inserted in a percutaneous approach into the kidney to remove a kidney stone embedded in the renal pelvis or calices
transurethral resection of a bladder tumor procedure to remove a bladder tumor from inside the bladder
diuretic blocks sodium from being absorbed from the tubule back into the blood
antispasmodic relaxes the smooth muscle in the walls of the ureter, bladder, and urethra
urinary analegesic exerts a pain-relieving effect on the mucosa of the urinary tract
ARF acute renal failure
BUN blood urea nitrogen
C & S culture and sensitivity
CRF chronic renal failure
cysto cystoscopy
ESRD end-stage renal disease
ESWL extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
GU genitourinary gonococcal urethritis
HCTZ hydrochlorothiazide (drug)
I & O intake and output
IVP intravenous pyelography
KUB kidneys, ureters, bladder
Sp gr, SG specific gravity
TNTC too numerous to count
UA urinalysis
UTI urinary tract infection
Created by: Beckster_Bug