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History Notes

Chapters 1-3

Archaeologists Study past societies based on the things they have left behind
Neolithic New stone
Agriculture cultivating food
Pharaoh means great house, name for Egyptian kings
Sargon means the true king, conquered Sumerian city states, leader of the Akkadians
Theocracy government where leaders rule by divine authority
Mesopotamia The land between the rivers
Ziggurat stepped tower dedicated to the god of the city
Anthropologists study human life and culture
Nomads follow herds of animals
Irrigation technique used to bring water to crops
Mohenjo-Daro means mound of the dead, one of the largest city settlements in the Indus valley
Akkadian Empire semetic people 2340 BC, ruler was Sargon
Rosetta stone stone containing both hieroglyphics and greek writing, important because it enable translation of hieroglyphics
cuneiform wedge shaped writing
Millet cereal crop
Paleolithic means old stone
Hunter-Gatherer society living off hunting and foraging for seeds and berries
Domestication species becomes accustomed to being cared for by another (like humans raise cattle
Fertile crescent Euphrates and Tigris rivers run through, early civilizations started there, Middle East
Sumer city located in southernM
Hieroglyphics Egyptian writing
Babylon city state in ancient Mesopotamia
Loess in China
Mesolithic middle stone age
Neolithic Revolution 8000 B.C.E. - 4000 B.C.E
Citadel A fortress for protecting a town, sometimes including a castle
Menes Name of the first pharaoh credited for creating the first dynasty
Polytheism Belief in many gods
Monotheism Belief in one god
Hammurabi sixth king of Babylon. He became the first king of the Babylonian Empire, extending Babylon's control over Mesopotamia by winning a series of wars against neighboring kingdoms.[1] Although his empire controlled all of Mesopotamia at the time of his death,
Silt soil deposited at the bottom of a river
Five Characteristics of a civilization Knowledge of Writing, Social Stratification Organized Government with clear political boundaries, Economic Specialization, Conscious development of art and Intellectual Attitudes.
four ancient civilizations and the rivers they developed along Egypt - Nile, China - Huang/Yangtse, Mesopotamia-Tigris/Euphrates, Indus Valley -Indus river
Why did Mesopotamia develop as a collection of city-state instead of one united nation? Decentralized government due to choppy land making for difficult travel
Why did Egypt have one united national government Centralized government due to flat land-easy travel
What impact did geography have on ancient civilizations? (Egypt/Mesoptamian land) Difficult travel results in city-states easy travel results in one government
Why was the neolithic revolution important? switch to the keeping of animals and growing of food - systematic agriculture.
First Amendment includes... Free Speech, Free Press, Freedom of Religion, Petition the government, Right to Assembly...
Created by: smacdonald