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Indigo Module

Nutrition Review

A condition characterized by the body's inability to synthesize or process food into forms the body can use for energy, growth, and development metabolic disorder
A condition in which the upper part of the stomach, which is joined to the esophagus or feeding tube, moves up into the chest through a hole (called a hiatus) in the diaphragm hiatus hernis
(MIC device) A feeding device placed permanently in the stomach to facilitate supplemental feedings Bard button
A feeding tube inserted through an incicion in the abdomen into the stomach gastrostomy tube (G tube)
A feeding tube inserted via endoscopy into the stomach or jejunum percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube (PEG tube)
A feeding tube placed through the abdominal wall into the small bowel jejunostomy tube (J tube)
A feeding tube put through the nose into the stomach nasogastric tube (N-G tube)
An accumulation of fluid in the body tissues or body cavities fluid retention
Difficulty swallowing dysphagia
Feeding by tube directly into the gastrointestinal system enternal feed
Gentel suction applied to a tube placed in the stomach to remove excessive secretions,such as saliva and gastric juices,that tend to accumulate in the stomach after surgery or trauma because the intestine is sluggish. gastric suction
The amount of energy expended in a given period, or the physical changes that occur in the body that result in heat production, determined by gender, environment, lifestyle and genetics metabolic rate
The audible return of gastrointestinal movement or function, also called peristalsis; often charted as BS x 4, meaning it sounds audible in all four abdominal quadrants bowel sounds present (BSP)
The physiological and biochemical process that promote growth and sustain life metabolism
Describe cardiac diet *pt with or pre-exisiting heart disease *low in fat and cholesterol, may restrict sodium and calories
Describe diabetic diet *inability to properly use glucose; intake is important to control diabetes *prescribed number of calories and certain portions of fat, carbohydrates and proteins; surgary foods avoided and excessivly fatty foods
Describe gluten-free diet *celiac disease *complete elination of gluten (diagnosed for life) *NO wheat, rye, barley, oats, triticale, spelt)
Describe high calorie diet *pts with excessiev weight loss from an illness or who cannot reach or maintain a healthy weight (butter, cream, fried foods, Ensure)
Describe high protein diet *pts who need to gain weight or repair tissue (recovery from surgery) *high protein meat, fish, milk, eggs, legumes, and nuts
Describe No added salt/Na restricted *salt should not be added at table *no processed chees, cured or smoked meats, sports drinks *pt with problems with fluid retention and congestive heart failure
Describe progressive diet *following surgery or an illness involving gastrointestinal tract *sequence of diets introduce food in stages as pt can tolerate
Describe pureed *pt cannot chew or have dysphagia *all food ground to soft, silky texture, sometimes thickeners added to hot or cold fluids until desired consistancy
Why would a TPN feed be ordered? *pt malnourished, being prepared for surgery *receiveing radiation/chemotherapy *had major surgery, severe burns, multiple fractures *cannot/should not get nutrition through eating *prolonged coma *severe anorexia *inflamed bowel *terminally ill
What does NPO mean? When would you post an NPO sign? *nothing by mouth *if client is to have a fasting blood sugar or cholesterol and triglycerides, they must remain NPO for 8-12 hours *if client is to remain NPO you must post a sign that states, "NPO for 8 to 12 hours"
How does activity affect nutritional needs? *more active-more calories expended *less active, fewer calories expended *process of healing will increase body's caloric utilization
How does age affect nutritional needs? *metabolic rate usually slows with age and fewer calories are required *children have higher metabolic rate and need more calories in portion to body weight, especially during growth periods (2yrs to adolescence)
How does gender affect nuttritional needs? *men need more calories than women, men are larger and have more muscle mass *hormones play role in increasing metabolic rate
How does genetics affect nutritional needs? *body structure is predetermined by genetics and affect our BMR *thyroid gland function is genetically influenced, low thyroid function slows BMR and increases thyroid function
How does illness affect nutritional needs? *fever, trauma and surgery will raise person's BMR *extra calories and sometimes extra protein are needed
How does pregnancy affect nutritional needs? *women must adjust their daily caloric intake to ensure a healthy, well-nourished baby *metabolism increases to meet energy demands of supporting pregnancy *diet in protein and appropriate calories are important especially if breastfeeding
How many grain products should an adult eat in a day? female 6-7, male 8
How many food groups are there? 4 (vegetables & fruits, grain products, milk & alternatives, meat & alternatives)
What is the "other" food group? oils and fats
BRAT banana, rice, applesauce, toast
BSP bowel sounds present
CDA Canadian Diabetic Association
CF clear fluids
CF-DAT strart with clear fluids then progress to diet as tolerated
DAT diet as tolerated
dc, d/c discontinue, discharge
DD diabeic diet
EF enternal feed
FF full fluids
FF-DAT start with full fluids then progress to diet as tolerated
Fr. French
GF gluten-free
G-TUBE gastrostomy tube
HF high fiber
HP high protein
LR low residue
MN minced
NAS no added salt
N-G TUBE nasogastric tube
NPO nothing by mouth
PAR parenteral feed
PE physical examination
REG full diet
SS surgical soft
T&A tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
Created by: DawnLangridge