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AP Government 7

AP Government - Chapter 7 Vocabulary

Chapter 7 TermsDefinitions
Political party A group that seeks to elect candidates to public office by supplying them with a label, a "party identification" by which they are known to electorate.
Mugwumps or Progressives The faction in the Republican party of the 1890's to the 1910's composed of reformers who opposed the use of patronage and party bosses and favored the ledaership of experts. After 1910 they evolved into a nonpartisan, "good government" movement.
Critical or realigning periods Periods during which a sharp, lasting shift occurs in the popular coalition supporting one or both parties. The issues that separate the two parties change, and so the kinds of voters supporting each party change.
Split ticket Voting for candidates of different parties for various offices in the same election. For example, voting for a Republican for senator and a Democrat for President.
Straight Ticket Voting for candidates who are all of the same party. For example, voting for Republican candidates for senator, representative, and president.
Office-blot ballot A ballot listing all candidates of a given office nder the name of that office; also called a "Massachusetts" ballot.
Party-Column ballot A ballot listing all candidates of a given party together under the name of that party; also called an "Indiana" ballot.
National Convention A meeting of party delegates elected in state primaries, caucuses, or conventions that is held every four years. Its primary purpose is to nominate presidential and vice-presidential candidates.
National Committee A committee of delegates from each state and territory that runs party affairs between national conventions
Congressional Campaign Committee A party committee in Congress that provides funds to members who are running for Congress, that provides funds to members who are running for reelection, or to would-be memebers running for an open seat or challenging a candidate from the opposition party
National Chairman A paid, full time manager of a party's day-to-day whork who is elected by the national committee.
Superdelegates Party leaders and elected officials who become delegates to the national convention without having to run in primaries or caucuses. Party rules determine the percentage of delegate seats reserved for party officials
Political Machine A party organization that recruits its member by dispensing patronage and that is characterized by a high degree of leadership control over meber activity.
Patronage Tangible incentives such as money, political jobs, or an opportunity to get favors from government
Ideological Party A party that values principle stands on issues above all else, including winning. It claims to have a comprehensive view of American society and government radically different from that of the established parties.
Solidary Incentives The social rewards taht lead people to join local or state political organizations. People who find politics fun and want to meet others who share their interests are said to respond to solidary incentives.
Sponsored party A local or state political party that is largely staffed and funded by another organization with established networks in the community.
Personal Following The political support provided to a candidate on the basis of personal popularity and networks.
Two-party System An electoral system with two dominant parties that compete in state or national elections. Third parties have little chance of winning.
Plurality System An electoral system, used in almost all American elections, in which the winner is the person who gets the most votes, even if he or she does not receive a majority of the votes.
Caucus An association of members of Congress created to advocate a political ideology or a regional, ethnic, or economic interest.
Created by: monkeykist on 2005-03-07



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