Busy. Please wait.

Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.

By signing up, I agree to StudyStack's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the email address associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know (0)
Know (0)
remaining cards (0)
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Skin Neoplasms

Skin and Soft Tissue Neoplasms

Disorders of Pigmentation and Melanocytes = ? * Freckles -- Lentigo -- Melanocytic Nevus -- Dysplastic Nevi -- Melanoma
Most common pigmented lesions of childhood = ? * Freckle (Ephelis) - from increased melanin in basal keratinocytes..... * Due to HYPERTROPHY
Lentigo basics = ? * Linear HYPERPLASIA of melanocytes.... * Does NOT darken when exposed to sunlight (is dark to begin with though)
Melanocytic Nevus (Mole) basics and what it is commonly confused with = ? * Benign, and can come out during pregnancy... * Confused with Melanoma a good bit
Melanocytic Nevus Patho = ? * Mutations in BRAF or NRAS
How the Melanocytic Nevus tumor stops growing ? * Oncogene-induced senescence = get cellular arrest by p16 when BRAF/NRAS are out of whack
Maturation Sequence of Nondysplastic Melanocytic Nevi = ? * Flat = when it forms at the EPI/DERMis Junction --> Junctional Nevus.... * Compound Nevus = at Junction AND in the DERMIS... * DERML NEVUS = all of it grows in the DERMIS
Histo of Junctional Type = ? * small, flat, uniform, nests at the dermal-epidermal junction
Compound Type = ? * raised, and more domed shape... * see intraepidermal and dermal nevus cells
Melanocytic Nevus Variants = ? * Congenital nevus -- Blue nevus -- Spitz nevus -- Halo nevus -- Dysplastic nevus
Congenital Nevus = ? * nevus cells are surrounded such structures such as hair follicles, dense nevus cells in the dermis,
Blue Nevus = ? * Is a Dermal Lesion = is benign, but can reoccur
Spitz Nevus = ? * DDx = Hemangioma... * Common in children.... * Histologically mimics MELANOMA... * See streaming down nests and hypergranulosis
Halo Nevus = ? * Looks like a white patch, with a red dot in the middle of it... * Is from Lymphocytic infiltrate around nevus cells
Dysplastic Nevus = ? * usu numerous and found on the back... * found at the epi/dermal junction... * See architectural changes and bridging... * PRECURSOR to MELANOMA
Dyplastic Nevus genes usu involved = ? * CDK = cyclin dependent kinase
Melanoma basics = ? * DEADLY if not caught early.... * Can arise not only from skin, but from mucosal surfaces
Melanoma Cx Features = ? * Usu asymptomatic or may start with pain/itching.... * Most are >10mm at Dx.... * ABC's = Asymmetric, Irreg Borders, and Color Changes
Melanoma Histo = ? * Has either a Radial Phase = Flat, wide growth OR Vertical Phase = Raised, that is due to increased mitosis (VERTICAL = Worst Prog.)... *
Signaling Pathways important in Melanoma = ? * Cell Survival = mTOR Pathway (usu in non-sun exposed ppl)... * Cell Prolif = RAS/RAF Pathways (BRAF/NRAS) (sun exposed ppl)
Some Melanoma Prognostic Factors = ? * Depth, Number of Mitoses, Growth Patterns, Tumor Regression/Progression
Merkel Cell Carcinoma = ? * Neuroendocrine CA of the skin.... * rare, aggressive, common mets... * BIGGEST ISSUE = it may be rarer than Melanoma, but is TWICE as deadly
Morphology of Merkel cell Carcinoma = ? * Raised/Indurated Ulcer looking lesion, with rolled edges.... * Histo: See lots of large blue cells
AEIOU of Merkel Call CA = ? * Asymmetry, E ?, immunocomp?, older than 55, and UV exposure
Benign Epithelial Tumors = ? * Seborrheic keratosis -- Acanthosis nigricans -- Fibroepithelial polyp (skin tag)
Seborrheic Keratosis mutations and is from ? * Due to mutations in FGFR3 and is from tumor growth factor alpha.... *
Leser-Trelat sign = ? * Large numbers of seborrheic keratosis appear as part of paraneoplastic syndrome (lots of them)
Seborrheic keratosis histo = ? * well demarcated, coin like lesion, filled with dark keratin, and is composed of benign BASALOID cells thar produce the keratin layer and can get keratin horns
Actinic Keratosis = ? * PRE-Malig epi lesion, from sun expose and exhibits hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis... * HIGH incidence in light skinned people... * Can get a CUTANEOUS HORN
Malignant Epidermal Tumors = ? * Basal Cell Carcinoma -- Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Basal cell Carcinoma basics = ? * Most common, slow growing, tends to be in sun exposed ppl and light skinned ppl... * Incidence rises in immunocomp ppl
BCC Morphology and Histo = ? * Raised, Shiny, telangiectatic nodules .... * Histo = see nests of Basaloid cells and Artifactual retraction (BCC separates from the rest of the layers)
Gorlin syndrome = ? * A nevoid BCC syndrome when we have basal cell nevi arising before the age of 20... * We see medulloblastoma, ovarian fibroma, palmar pits, and other things in these pts.
Patho of Gorlin Syn = ? * Mutation in PTCH, and doesn't have SMO joined to it to keep it inhibited
Squamous cell carcinoma = ? * 2nd most common skin CA.... * Higher in MEN.. * Usu detected when small and usu resectable
SqCC Morpho/Histo = ? * can look like a scab... * see the typical squamous keratin pearls and intracellular bridges
Patho of SqCC = ? * From UV Exposure (280-320nm) = formation of pyrimidine dimers (C-T bind instead of the normal A-T and C-G)
Tumors of the Dermis = ? * Dermatofibroma (benign fibrous histiocytoma) -- DFSP (dermatofibrosarcoma protruberans)
Dermatofibroma = ? * BENIGHN... * usu a Hx of Trauma, and arises on the legs of middle aged women... * looks like BCC without the vasc... * Histo = see well circumscribed prolif of collagen bundles and see the overlying hyperplasia of the epidermis
Soft Tissue Tumors = ? * Fatty Tumors -- Fibrous tumors and Tumor like lesions -- Fibrohistiocytic Tumors -- Synovial sarcoma
Lipomas and Liposarcomas = ? * Liposarcomas = see in DEEP tissues and in the retroperitoneum (pleomorphic is worst kind)
Fibrous Tumors and Tumor Like-Lesions = ? * Reactive pseudosarcomatous proliferations -- Fibromatosis -- Fibrosarcoma
Reactive Pseudosarcomatous Proliferations types and basics = ? * Nodular Fasciitis = painless, solid, benign, fast growing mass that has spindle fibers and RBCs in it..... * Myositis Ossificans = see bone growing the muscle after a trauma (young athletic ppl usu)
Fibromatoses = ? * Superficial Fibromatosis = nodular or poorly defined broad fascicles of fibroblasts & myofibroblasts surrounded by abundant dense collagen (ex. Peyronies - penis curve).... * Deep-Seated Fibromatosis (Desmoid Tumors) = lg, reoccur if incomplete excision
Deep-Seated Fibromatosis genes = ? * Mutations in APC or B, in those with or without underlying Gardner syndrome
Fibrosarcoma = ? * Histology = Buzzword is Herringbone Pattern (spindle cells and TONS of mitosis)
Fibrohistiocytic Tumors = ? * contain both fibroblast elements and macrophages.... * Benign Fibrous Histiocytoma and Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma
Synovial Sarcoma = ? * Cell of origin is unclear and ppl usu 20-40... * usu in soft DEEP tissue,slow grower, and around the hip/knee (can be in neck too).... * Can be Monophasic = epi OR spindle cells only, OR Biphasic = BOTH epi and spindle cell
Synovial Sarcoma genes and important trait = ? * from translocation in T(X,18) (p11;q11)... * Has a high chance to Mets to LUNG, LNs, and BONE
Created by: thamrick800