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chapter 14

the Lymphatic System and Immunity--vocab terms

lymph the name for tissue fluid that enters lymph capillaries.
lymph capillaries very permeable and collect tissue fluid and proteins.
lacteals specialized lymph capillaries in the villi of the small intestine; they absorb the fat-soluble end products of digestion,(such as fatty acids and vitamins A,D,E, and K.)
skeletal muscle pump a mechanism that increases venous return; contractions of the skeletal muscles compress the deep veins, especially those of the legs.
respiratory pump a mechanism that increases venous return; pressure changes during breathing compress the veins that pass through the thoracic cavity.
cisterna chyli a large lymph vessel formed by the union of lymph vessels from the lower body; continues superiorly as the thoracic duct.
thoracic duct the lymph vessel that empties lymph from the lower half and upper left quadrant of the body into the left subclavian vein.
lymph node a small mass of lymphatic tissue located along the pathway of a lymph vessel; produces some lymphocytes and destroys pathogens in the lymph.
plasma cells a cell derived from an activated B cell that produces antibodies to a specific antigen.
lymph nodule a small mass of lymphatic tissue located in a mucous membrane; destroys pathogens that penetrate mucous membranes.
tonsils the lymph nodules in the mucosa of the pharynx, the palatine tonsils, and the adenoid; also the lingual tonsils on the base of the tongue.
tonsillectomy the surgical removal of the palatine tonsils and/or adenoid.
Peyer's patches the lymph nodules in the mucosa of the small intestine, especially in the ileum.
spleen an organ located in the upper left abdominal quadrant behind the stomach; consists of lymphatic tissue that produces lymphocytes; also contains macrophages that phagocytize old red blood cells.
thymus an organ made of lymphatic tissue located inferior to the thyroid gland; large in the fetus and child, and shrinks with age; produces T cells and hormones necessary for the maturation of the immune system.
self-recognition the ability to distinguish the cells that belong in the body from those that do not.
self-tolerance the ability not to react to proteins and other organic molecules our cells produce.
immunity the ability to destroy pathogens or other foreign material and to prevent further cases of certain infectious diseases.
antigens chemical markers that identify cells.
natural killer cells a type of lymphocyte that is not specific and is part of innate immunity; kills pathogens and tumor cells by direct contact.
interferons (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-interferons) are proteins produced by cells infected with viruses and by T cells.
complement a group of more than 20 plasma proteins that circulate in the blood until activated.
inflammation a general response to damage of any kind: microbial, chemical, or physical.
cytokines chemicals released by activated T cells that attract macrophages. are also released by many cells and tissues as part of cellular communication.
cell-mediated immunity the mechanism of adaptive immunity that does not involve antibody production, but rather the destruction of foreign antigens by the activities of T cells and macrophages.
antibody-mediated immunity the mechanism of adaptive immunity that involves antibody production and the destruction of foreign antigens by the activities of B cells, T cells, and macrophages. (Syn.-humoral immunity)
antibody a protein molecule produced by plasma cells that is specific for and will bond to a particular foreign antigen. (Syn.-gamma globulin, immune globulin)
opsonization the action of antibodies or complement that upon binding to a foreign antigen attracts macrophages and facilitates phagocytosis.
vaccines a preparation of a foreign antigen that is administered by injection or other means in order to stimulate an antibody response to provide immunity to a particular pathogen.
agglutination "clumping", this is what happens when antibodies bind to bacterial cells.
genetic immunity the immunity provided by the genetic makeup of a species; reflects the inability of certain pathogens to cause disease in certain host species.
acquired immunity the immunity obtained upon exposure to a pathogen or a vaccine or upon reception of antibodies for a particular pathogen.
passive immunity the immunity provided by the reception of antibodies from another source; may be natural (placental, breast milk) or artificial (injection of gamma globulins).
active immunity the immunity provided by the production of antibodies after exposure to a foreign antigen; may be natural (recovery from disease) or artificial (reception of a vaccine).
Created by: cramacher