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Bacterial Skin Infct

Bacterial Skin Infections

Normal Skin Flora = ? * Colonized by predominantly by aerobic and facultative anaerobic organisms ..... * Almost all are of G+ origin
What usually colonizes DRY areas of the skin ?... * WET/MOIST areas ?... Bedridden People = ? * Dry = G+ Cocci.... * Wet = G- Rods.... * Bedridden = G- Rods...... * Biggest Culprits = Staph. Aureus and Strep. Pyo.
Usu cause of Abscess ? Cellulitis ? Bed Sores ? * Staph Aureus.... * Strep Pyo.... * E.Coli
Staph Characteristics = ? * G + (purple) in clusters and facultative anaerobes.... * Grow in Mannitol Agar
Staph Aureus Virulence Factors = ? * Peptidoglycan thick layer and Teichoic acids that help adhere....* Fibronectin-binding protein - promotes binding to mucosal surfaces.... * Protein A = anti-opsonin effect that helps it bind to other cells
Toxins and Enzymes = ? * Coagulsae, Hemolysin, and Leukocidin + (Kill WBC)..... * + for Lipase Nz, Beta-Lactamase from mecA gene (able to break Beta-Lactam rings)
Other Toxins = ? * Exfoliative toxins = A and B ... * Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin... * Enterotoxins (Most common kind of food poisoning)
Exfoliative Toxins Scalded Skin Syndrome has ? Bullous Impetigo ? * A and B..... * A
Staph. Aureus Pathogenesis = ? * it colonizes the external nares....* Can NOT go through skin unless it is damaged
Some Primary Infections caused by Stap. Aureus = ? * Impetigo -- Scalded skin syndrome -- Toxic shock syndrome -- Folliculitis -- Abscess -- Boils -- Carbuncles -- Cellulitis
How to Dx and Treat a Staph. Aureus Infection ? * aspirate abscess → Gram stain and culture ..... * TmT = IND, treat empirically to cover MRSA
Mechanism of resistance to pencillin = ? * β-lactamase enzyme breaking the beta-lactam ring, rendering the anitbacterial inactive
Mechanism of Methicillin Resistance = ? * MRSA expresses a PBP that is altered and does not allow Methicillin to bind
TmT for the 2 types of MRSA = ? * Hospital Acquired = Vanc or Linezolid..... * Community Acquired = Trimeth-Sulf
How MRSA in the community is transmitted ? * usu from direct contact with someone with MRSA.... * can be from from contaminated items too
General Properties of Strep. Pyo. = ? * G+ Cocci in CHAINS (see little purple dots in chains).... * Sugar Fermenter.... * Catalase - ... * Need Enrichment to grow
How we classify Strep. = ? * Based on Hemolysis Properties on Sheeps Blood .... * Alpha = incomplete hemolysis, and we see a yellow color change... * Beta = complete hemolysis and see clear all around the culture... * Gamma = NO lysis at all
What are the Streps. based on there Hemolysis properties = ? * Strep. Pyo and Agalacitae = BETA .... * Faecalis = GAMMA .... * Pneumoniae = ALPHA
Lab Test that Strep Pyo is sensitive to = ? * Bacitracin Test
Group A Streptococci (Strep Pyo.) Basics = ? * Hyaluronic Acid Capsule... * Fibrils that have M-Proteins for attachment
Group A Patho = ? * Get from ORAL secretions from another infected person.... * It spreads bc its CAPSULE is resistant to phago.
Some Diseases caused by Strep. Pyogenes = ? * Pharyngitis (sore throat) - Scarlet fever - Impetigo ...... * Postinfection Diseases = Rheumatic Fever (following a URI) and Glumerulonephritis (following a skin infection with Group A)
Lab Dx = ? * Cultures to use in Hemolysis and Direct Antigen Tests... * Get a Bd Culture
Scarlett Fever and TmT = ? * Caused by a strain of Group A Strep from its Erythrogenic toxin ... * See the "Strawberry Tongue"..... * TmT = Penicillins (can use them unlike S. Aureus)
Impetigo = ? * From Group A Strep (Pyo.) and is usu the Non-Bullous form... * Can be mixed with Staph. Aureus
Erysipelas = ? * Group A Strep.... * Looks like cellulitis on the face that makes them look like cat eyes
Wound infections = ? * Group A Strep causes more Cellulitis, unlike Staph. Aureus that causes a lot of abscesses
Gram-Negative Nonfermenters = ? * Opportunistic pathogens that do not ferment glucose.... * Pseudomonas Aeruginosa and Acinetobacter
Pseudomonas aeruginosa General characteristics = ? * G - Rods (pink).... *Motile Flagellar Tail.... * Oxidase +... * Grow at 42 C (warm).... * Produce a FRUITY ODOR when colonizing
Pseudomonas Virulence Factors = ? * Pili = Attachment... * Polysaccharid Capsule with a SLIME layer that makes it hard for ABx to kill them.... * Exotoxin-A
Ecthyma gangranosum = ? * From Pseudomonas... * Looks like a red/black plug on the butt of a little kid (pic in the lecture we had)
Diseases caused by Pseudomonas Aeruginosa = ? * Infect immunocompromised or those with compromised physical barriers..... * Skin after BURNS, Resp Tract in someone with CF, Conjunctivitis, Otitis Externa (Swimmers Ear), and Folliculitis from Hot Tubs
Pseudomonas TmT = ? * Keep everything clean.... * For serious infections, give an AG + Extended Spec Penicillin by IV
Acinetobacter basics = ? * NonFermenter, Oxidase - (aerobic), nonmotile, Short G - Rods (little pink rods)..... * Are MDRAB (multi-drug resistant AB)
Where we see Acinetobacter with a high prevalence ? * Prevalent among American soldiers wounded in Iraq (grows in warmer/tropical/humid areas)
Acne vulgaris = ? * The MOST COMMON skin infection... * Get HIGH sebum activity that plugs up the follicles, that then get Proprionibacterium Acnes, that causes inflammation and releases pro-inflam mediators.
What we usu get from a Cat or Dog Bite, or even a Human bite ? * Pasteurella Multocida
How we get Erythrasma, what causes it, and how is it Dx = ? * It looks like an solid red rash, and we get it in aresa on the body that are moist (Arm pits and Vaginal)..... * From Corynebacterium... * Dx = Wood’s Lamp (turns coral red)
Decubitus Ulcer MoA and what causes it ? * Starts off as a minor skin infection and then goes deeper and deeper til it is through the fatty layer and even in to the muscle.... * It is from a MIX of Staph, Strep, and even enteric bacteria
Purpura Secondary to Vasculitis is what and what causes it ? * From Neisseria Meningitidis (G - Diplococci) that invade the blood vessels and we get a endogenous skin lesion. (Bd on the inside causes the skin lesion on the outside)
Causes Leprosy and how we Dx it ? * Mycobacterium Leprae... * Dx = Acid Fast Stain (see lots of white, some red and blue)
Created by: thamrick800