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Leonardo Da Vinci amous painter, inventor, sculptor, mathematician, musician. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
Michelangelo (1475-1564) An Italian sculptor, painter, poet, engineer, and architect. Famous works include the mural on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, and the sculpture of the biblical character David.
Donatello (1386-1466) Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.
Raphael (1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.
Renaissance "rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome
humanism A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
secular Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
patron Granting favors or giving contracts or making appointments to office in return for political support
perspective An artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface
vernacular Everyday speech; slang
Machiavelli 1469-1527. Italian political theorist whose book The Prince (1513) describes the achievement and maintenance of power by a determined ruler indifferent to moral considerations.
Medici Family Ruled Florence during the Renaissance, became wealthy from banking, spent a lot of money on art, controlled Florence for about 3 centuries
William Shakespeare (1564 - 1616) English poet and playwright considered one of the greatest writers of the English language; works include Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, and Hamlet.
Johann Gutenberg German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
Thomas Moore 1516 wrote Utopia about an imaginary land inhabited by a peace-loving people, an ideal place. In Utopia, greed, corruption, war, and crime had been weeded out.
indulgence A pardon given by the Roman Catholic Church in return for repentance for sins
Reformation A religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Martin Luther 95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
Lutheran Teachings of Martin Luther emphasizing the cardinal doctrine of justification by faith alone
Peace of Augsburg 1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
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