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Chapter 4&5

Pharmacology Related to Addiction

TermDefinition
Psychiatric drugs drugs used to treat forms of mental illness.
Psychotropic medication the different name for psychiatric drugs
Biomedical model The definition of the biomedical model holds that abnormal thoughts and behaviors result from abnormal biochemical process in the brain
Antipsychotic drugs drugs to treat symptoms of schizophrenia
Schizophrenia major mental illness, "cut off " from a sense of reality. Symptoms include hallucinations and delusional thinking,
Delusions ideas with no foundation of reality
Caratonic symptom in schizophrenia patient, is rigid , prolonged body posture.
Typical anti-psycotic drugs majority of available anti-psychotic drugs, possible Parkinson's-like side effects.
Tardive Dyskinesia serious side effect of treatment with first-generation (typical) anti-psychotic drugs.Ex. jerky movements of face and lips, unsteadiness in walking and rocking when seated.
Atypical anti-psychotic drugs anti-psychotic drugs that don't cause Parkinson's-like side effects
Agranulocytosis potentially deadly blood disorder associated with the anti-psychotic drug clozapine
Anti-depressants drugs prescribed and used for treatment of depression
Monamine Oxidase (MAO) an enzyme that breaks down dopamine, nor-epineohrine or serotonin at their respective synapses in the brain
MAO inhibitors 1st generation antidepressants that reduce the effects of monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the brain
Tricyclic Anti-depressants class of 1st generation anti-depressant drugs. BN Elavil
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI's) a group of anti-depressants that slow down the reuptake of serotonin at synapses in the brain
Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI's) a group of anti-depressants that slow down the reuptake of serotonin and norepinepheine at synapses in the brain
Mainia mood disorder characterized by agitation, bursts of energy and impulsiveness
Bipolar Disorder mood disorder in which patients swings back and forth between feelings of depression and mania
Litium Carbonate psychiatric drug used in the treatment of mania or bipolar disorder
Autism a form of dvlmt disability, typically shows during the first 3 years of life. That effects the normal dvlmt of the brain in areas of social comm and comm skills. Autistic kids & adults have a hard time in verbal and nonverbal talk and emotional response
Off-label usage the practice of prescribing the use of particular education, even if the drug in question has not been FDA-approved for that purpose
Deinstitutionalization the social policy of encouraging mentally ill individuals to be treated in community-based programs rather than in large mental hospitals
Parkinson's-like symptoms side effects of typical anti-psychotic drugs, involving a fixed facial expression and difficulty walking
Sedative-hypnotics a category of drugs that give a sense of calm.
Anti-anxiety drugs drugs that make the user feel peaceful. Also known as tranquilizers
Inhalants chemicals that give breathable vapors. They give euphoriant and depressant effects
Barbiturate a drug in the family of depressant acid used for calming effects and anti-epileptic
Phenobarbital long-acting barbiturate
Amobarital and intermediate-acting barbiturate BN Amytal
Pentobital a short-acting barbiturate BN Nembutal
Secobarbital a short-acting barbiturate BN Seconal
REM-sleep rebound phenomenon associated with the withdrawal from barbs. its REM increases resulting disturbed sleep and nightmares
Chloral Hydrate a depressant drug once used for sleep. Can't take with alcohol causes illness.
Methaqualone a non-barbiturate depressant drug once used for sedation.BN Quaalude
Methrobamte a non-barbiturate anti-anxiety drug and sedative. BN Miltown.
Benzodiazepines family of anti-anxiety drugs. Examples are diazepam (valum)
Chlordiazepocide a major benzodiazepine drug for anxiety. BN Librium
Diazepam a major benzodiazepine drug for anxiety
Zolpidem a nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hynotic, introduced in 1993 for sleep.
Eszopiclone a non-benzodiazepine sedative-hynotic, introduced in 2005 for sleep.
Buspirone a non-benzodiazepine anti-anxiety drug introduced in 1986
Beta Blockers traditionally used to treat cardiac and blood pressure disorders. Also prescribed to people who suffer from "stage fright" or anxiety. Ex. atenolol (BN:Tenormin)
Ganna-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) a strong depressant, often abused for sleep and sedation. When slipped into alcohol it could be a date-rape drug
Nitrous Oxide a pain relieving gas referred to as laughing gas
Whippets small containers holding pressured nitrous oxide
Hypoxia a deficiency in oxygen intake
Ether an anaesthetic drug first introduced to surgical practice by William T. Morton in the 1840s
Acetone a chemical found in nail polish removers and other products
Benzene a carcinogenic 9cancer-producing compound found in many solvent products,representing a serious health risk when inhaled
Hexane a dangerous compound present in many glues and adhesive products. Inhalation of these products has been associated with muscle weakness and atrophy.
Toluene a compound in glues, cements and other adhesive products. Inhalants of these products results in behavioral and brain impairments.
Triorthocresyl Phoshate a gasoline additive. Inhalation of TCP- containing gasoline has been linked to spastic muscle disorders and liver problems.
Oil of mustard an addictive form of glue that produces nose irritation. resulting in potential inhalant abuse
Describe the ways in which psychoactive medications can affect the neurotransmitter receptor system Psychoactive drugs affect neurotransmitters by interrupting how the neurotransmitters affects the cell by either blocking or over producing an impluse
What is the major problem in the administration of clozpine (clozaril) in the treatment of Schizophrenia? -can develop lethal blood disease -loss of white blood cells -decline in the immune system -clozaril blocks D4 receptors which is why motor difficulties do not arise
Describe the dopamine hypothesis of the action of anti psychotics anti psychotics tend to block receptors in the brains dopamine pathway
Created by: kelseypayne95 on 2014-03-23



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