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Urban Dev Theories

Concentric Ring Theory Ernest Burgess. 1925. Concentric Ring Theory holds that new urban development should be constructed in a concentric circle around existing urban development.
Sector Theory Homer Hoyt. 1939. The Sector Theory holds that urban growth occurs along communication and transportation routes known as sectors.
Multiple Nuclei Theory Chauncey Harris. 1945. The Multiple Nuclei Theory holds that urban areas grow by incorporating new nuclei that have separate and specialized functions.
Bid Rent Theory William Alonso. 1960. The Bid Rent Theory holds that, as urban development extends farther from the central business district, there is a proportional decrease in the cost of land, employment opportunity, population density, and development intensity.
City as Growth Machine Theory John Logan and Harvey Molotch. The City as Growth Machine Theory holds that the elite and wealthy members of a community are the primary directors of urban growth.
Monumental Design Relied on ancient Roman architecture and design. Sought to create symmetrical design by splitting the city along an axis and constructing similar buildings along both sides of the axis. Incorporated central public squares and boulevards lined with trees.
New Towns Post-WWII. Reston, VA (1962) was first planned res comm in VA, and established by the Fairfax Co. Board of Supervisors. Self-contained town. Columbia, MD (1963) = self-contained. Planned by James Rouse. Neighborhood unit principles and class integration.
City Beautiful Movement Relied heavily on a neo-classical architecture, sought to make parks, public art, and boulevards lined with trees part of urban design and civic improvements. Goals were perpetuating order, balance, and refinement in urban design.
"Garden City" development model Proposes a self-sufficient community that incorporates high-density development. This allows much open space for greenbelts, agricultural land, and other scenic components. This theory marked a departure from more conventional, industrialized cities.
"Garden Suburb" Theory applied to residential communities and is based on the 1869 model of Riverside, Illinois as designed by Frederick Law Olmstead, Sr. It incorporates well-manicured green space and curving streets.
Greenbelt Towns Planned based on Garden Cities movement and were government-sponsored in the 1930s. Examples include Greenbelt, MD; Greenhills, Ohio; and Greendale, Wisconsin.
Synoptic Rationalism Rationalism is the foundation and embodiment of the scientific method. Contains: 1) goals and objectives are set, 2) policy alternatives are identified, 3) policy alternatives are evaluated, 4) selected policy alt is implemented
Incrementalism Charles Lindbloom - "The Science of Muddling Through". Practical response to rationalism. Mixture of intuition and experience. Little increments over long periods of time. Incrementalism = planning on a day to day basis.
Transactive Planning Like incrementalism, transactivism doe snot view planning purely as a scientific technique. It espouses planning as a decentralized function based on face-to-face contacts, interpersonal dialogues, and mutual learning. Behaviorlist-style planning
Advocacy Planning Planners become like lawyers: they advocate and defend the interests of a particular client or group (usually economically disadvantaged and/or politically unorganized or underrepresented). Paul Davidoff. Saul Alinsky = "organizations" who feel powerless
Radical Planning Radicalism take transactivism to the extreme. Radicalism hates hierarchical bureaucracies, centralized planning, and domineering professional planners. Planning is most effective when it's performed by non-professional neighborhood planning committees
Utopianism Utopianism = planning is most effective when it proposes sweeping changes that capture the public imagination. Daniel Burnham's "Plan of Chicago", Frank Lloyd Wright's "Broadacre City, and Le Corbusier's "La Ville Contemporaine" are cited as Utopian works
Methodism Addresses situations in which the planning techniques that should be used are known, but the ends that should be achieved by these techniques are not. Such a situation would be making a population projection just to have it handy when it is needed.
Dissecting Techniques Dissecting techniques are used to produce theories about planning's function in society. These techniques are based on describing what planners "actually do", and not on idealized visions of what planners "should be doing".
Arnstein's "Ladder of Participation" Divides public participation in policymaking and planning into 3 major levels based on the power that the general public actually has - 1) non-participation (public is manipulated); 2) tokenism (public is informed, consulted, placated); 3) citizen power
Central Place Theory 1933. Walter Christaller. Size and spacing of cities. There is a minimum market threshold to bring a firm to a city, and a max range people are willing to travel to receive goods and services.
Created by: jlongabaugh