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PHS Midterm Review

Midterm Review (Units 1-4)

Identifying with another person's feelings is? Empathy
Having integrity and being truthful (admitting mistakes so they can be corrected) is? Honesty
Being reliable in work performance (perform assigned tasks on time and accurately is? Dependability
Being prepared for lifelong learning to maintain competence is? Willingness to learn
Being qualified and capable to perform a task is? Competence
Using comments of others, constructive or negative to improve performance is? Acceptance of criticism
Enjoying your work and having a positive attitude is? Enthusiasm
being able to determine things that must be done and doing them without constant direction (ability to begin and follow through with a task) is? Self-motivation
Saying or doing the right thing in a situation is? Tact
Being tolerant and understanding (learning to deal with frustration and overcoming obstacles) is? Patience
Being accountable for actions and behavior is? Responsibility
Using good judgment in actions and words (observing the patient's right to confidential care and watching what you say and do) is? Discretion
Working well with others is? Team player
What the patient feels (pain, nausea, dizziness, hunger, itching) is considered? Subjective information (symptom)
What can be seen or measured (heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, respiratory rate, weight, height, redness, swelling) is considered? Objective information (sign)
A person's measured weight is an example of? Objective information (sign)
A person's self-reported pain level is an example of? Subjective information (symptom)
HIPAA stands for? Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act
HIPAA is regulates what? Confidential information should not be disclosed (given) to anyone without paper authorization or permission.
Criminal law is? Focuses on wrongs against a person, property or society.
Civil Law is? Focuses on legal relationships between people and the protection of a person's rights.
Tort is? A civil wrong; where a person's behavior has caused someone harm.
Negligence is? Failure to give care that is normally expected of a person in a particular position with resulting injury to another person (ex: Bath water too hot.
Malpractice is? Failure of a professional to use the skill/learning normally expected in a particular profession resulting in injury, loss, or damage to the person receiving care; "professional negligence" (ex: Amputating the wrong limb).
Abuse is? Any action that results in physical harm, pain or mental anguish.
An example of physical abuse is? hitting, kicking
An example of verbal abuse is? yelling, name calling
An example of psychological abuse is? Threats/intimidation
Sexual abuse is? Unwanted sexual touching
Assault is? Any threat/attempt to injure another person.
Battery is? Unlawful touching of another person without their permission (Ex: performing a procedure on a patient without their consent).
Invasion of privacy is? Unnecessary exposure of an individual or revealing personal information about an individual without permission (Ex: not closing the door during a patient exam).
False imprisonment is? Restraining an individual or restricting an individual's freedom by making statements that are false.
Defamation is? Damaging a person's name/reputation by making statements that are false.
Slander is? Spoken defamation
Libel is? Written defamation.
Privileged information is? Any/all information concerning patients should only be shared with the hospital employees who are caring for that patient.
Exemptions to privileged information are? births/deaths, suspected abuse (injuries resulting in violence), drug abuse and infectious diseases.
Ethics is? Set of principles dealing with what is morally right or wrong.
An advance directive is? A patient's instructions, usually related to end-of-life issues regarding what medical treatment they want or do no want if they are unable to express their wishes.
A living will is? Document allowing individuals to state what measures should or should not e used to prolong life if their condition is terminal.
A power of attorney is? Document permitting another individual to appoint another person to make any decisions regarding health care if the patient is unable to make those decisions.
Ancient Times (4000-3000BC) Illness/disease caused by supernatural spirits and demons
Ancient Egyptians (3000-300BC) Earliest people to maintain health records
Ancient Egyptians (3000-300BC) Mummified corpses showed signs of arthritis, kidney stones and arteriosclerosis
Ancient Chinese (1200BC-220AD) Treat whole body by cursing spirits and nourishing the body; recorded herbal medications; used acupuncture to treat pain
Ancient Greeks Illness was result of natural causes; believed in disease prevention; studied effects of disease and the human body
Hippocrates "Father of Medicine"
Hippocrates Organized disease by signs and symptoms
Hippocrates Created high standards of ethics used by physicians (Hippocratic Oath)
Sign Objective patient observation
Symptom Subjective patient observation
Sign Fever
Symptom Pain
Sign Swollen ankle
Symptom Nausea
Ancient Romans Established hospitals (for injured soldiers)
Ancient Romans Developed public sanitation systems (aqueducts for clean water, sewers for waste)
Dark Ages (400-800 AD) Emphasis on saving soul and study of medicine prohibited
Middle Ages (800-1400 AD) Bubonic plague killed 75% of population in Europe and Asia
Arab physician Rhazes Began using animal gut for suture material
Renaissance (1350-1650AD) The rebirth of science & medicine; dissection of the human body began
Leonardo DaVinci Studied corpses and drew the human body more realistically
Printing Press Allowed knowledge to be spread
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek Invented the microscope
Ambroise Pare Father of modern Surgery
William Harvey Described circulation of blood to/from the heart
Ambroise Pare Used ligatures to bind arteries to stop bleeding
Gabriel Fahrenheit Invented 1st mercury thermometer
Benjamin Franklin Invented bifocals
Benjamin Franklin 1Discovered colds could be passed from person to person
Edward Jenner Developed smallpox vaccination
Rene Laennec Invented the stethoscope
Florence Nightingale Founder of modern nursing
Florence Nightingale Start nursing schools
Robert Koch Father of microbiology; developed way to grow bacteria on culture plates
Ignaz Semmelweiss Encouraged hand-washing
Gregory Mendel Established principles of heredity (traits can be passed from parents to children)
Louis Pasteur Discovered that microorganisms cause disease and how to kill them (pasteurization of milk)
Wilhelm Roentgen Discovered x-rays
Joseph Lister First doctor to use antiseptic during surgery
Sigmund Freud Formed the basis for psychiatry and psychology
Clara Barton Founded the American Red Cross
Sir Alexander Fleming Discovered penicillin
Jonas Salk Discovered polio vaccination
Crick and Watson Described DNA structure
HIPAA Ensures privacy of patient information
Diagnostic Related Group (DRG) Classifying patients with certain disease in one payment group
DRG Diagnostic Related Group
Hopsital Provides INPATIENT care.
Hospitals are classified by funding; list the four funding types. 1) Proprietary/for profit 2) nonprofit 3) government 4) Religious
Hospitals are classified by services; list the two service types. 1) General 2) Specialty
Long-term healthcare facility Provides care for elderly, people with physical or mental disabilities and people with chronic or long-term illness.
Nursing home For live-in patients who no longer can care for themselves
Assisted Living self-sufficient person pays a fee to live in a unit with BASIC services
Independent living patients live in a "Senior Living Community" and use ONLY the services they need
Emergency Care Provide special care for accidents or sudden illness (risk of losing life, limb or eye sight)
Medical Offices Provide diagnosis, treatment, examination, basic laboratory testing & minor surgery; usually operated by a group of group of physicans
Dental Offices Provide dental exams, cleaning and treatments for a variety of disorders
Clinics Provide a variety of OUTPATIENT services
Optical Centers Provide vision exams; prescribe eye glasses or contact lenses
Medical Labs where diagnostic test are processed (usually blood or urine specimens)
Dental Labs where implants, dentures and other corrective devices for the mouth are made
Home Health Care Provide care to patients who are terminally ill
Palliative Care Comfort care for the terminally ill
Mental Health Provide care of patients who have mental illness and disorders
List 4 types of Mental Health Services 1) Counseling 2) Psychiatric 3) Chemical abuse 4) Phsycial abuse
Genetic Counseling Centers Provide testing & counseling to individuals or couples who are pregnant or considering pregnancy
Regabilitation Provide services to help patients with physical or mental disabilities develop maximum ability for self-care
List 3 examples of rehabilitative therapy 1) Physical therapy 2) Occupational therapy 3) Speech therapy
Industrial Health Centers Onsite clinic within a large industry or employer that provides basic exams, accident/illness prevention and wellness programs
School Health Services Provide health screenings, health education, and emergency care to students and staff, along with recommendations for a safe/sanitary school environment
Local Health Departments provide immunizations, inspections for health and sanitation, statistics and records, health education or clinics
Voluntary/nonprofit agencies 1organizations focus on specific disease; educate public
List two examples of a voluntary/nonprofit agency 1) American Red Cross 2) American Cancer Society
How do voluntary/nonprofit agencies receive funding? Supported by donations, membership feeds, fundraisers and grants
Associate's Degree awarded by vocational/technical school or community college; requires completion of prescribed two-year course of study
Bachelor's Degree Awarded by college or university; requires completion of prescribed course of study that usually lasts for four or more years
Master's Degree Awarded by a college or university; requires completion of one ore more years beyond a bachelor's degree
Doctorate Degree Awarded by college or university; requires completion of two or more years beyond a bachelor's or master's degree; some require four to six years of additional study
Aide/Assistant Up to one year of training (classroom and on-the-job training); examples: Dental assistant, nursing aide
Technician Associate's degree, or on-the-job training; examples: dental laboratory technician, surgical technician
Technologist 3-4 years of college (bachelor's degree), plus work experience; examples: Occupational Therapist, Respiratory Therapist
Professional 4 years of college (bachelor's) and an advanced degree; examples: dentist, physician, nurse
Therapeutic Services Cluster/Pathway Maintain or change the health status of the patient over time; examples: nurse, physician, physical therapist, occupational therapist, speech therapist
Diagnostic Services Cluster/Pathway Create a picture of patient health at a single point and time; examples: Electroencephalographic technologist, medical laboratory technician, radiologic technician
Health Informatics Cluster/Pathway Provide functions that support and document patient care; examples: admitting clerk, epidemiologist, medical librarian
Support Services Cluster/Pathway Provide a therapeutic environment for the delivery of health care; examples: central supply worker, housekeeper
Biotechnology Research & Development Cluster/Pathway (Environmental) uses scientific and technical advancements to enhance diagnostic and therapeutic abilities in health care; examples: biomedical engineer, forensic scientist
Purpose of the National Health Care Skill Standards (NHCSS) is Developed to indicate knowledge and skills expected of health care workers in a specific cluster/pathway
Preventing illnesss #1 cost containment strategy. Prevent illnesses before they can occur.
Mass/bulk purchasing Buying supplies and equipment in bulk to get a lower per unit price (Costco/Sam's Club philosophy)
Combination of Service Combining similar services. For example, all medication dismemberment goes through a pharmacy vs. each Medical Office having their own pharmacy to issue medications.
Outpatient Services Administer healthcare as much in outpatient clinics versus checking them in as inpatients at a hospital.
a-, an- without, lack of
bi- twice, double, both
dors- to the back
endo- within, innermost
inter- between, among
intra- within, into, inside
para- near, beside, beyond, abnormal, lower-half of the body
post- after, behind
sub- less, under, low
-algia pain
-ectomy surgical removal of
-itis inflammation of
-gram tracing, picture, record
-megaly large, enlarged
-ology the study of, science of
-osis condition, state, process
-ostomy opening of an organ
-otomy cutting into
-pathy disease, abnormal condition
-plasty surgical correction or repair
-sclerosis dryness or hardness
-scope examining instrument
-stenosis contracted, narrow
-rrhaphy structure of, screwing up of a gap or defect
-pnea breathing
-al pertaining to
-uria urine
angi/o vessel
arteri/o artery
cardi/o- heart
craini/o skull
col/o- colon, bowel, large intestine
cost/o- rib
hepat/o liver
hystero- uterus
later/o- side
mammo- breast, or mammary glands
myel/o- bone marrow, spinal cord
my/o- muscle
nephr/o- kidney
neur/o- nerve, nervous system
plegia- paralysis
rhin/oo- nose
trache/o windpipe
peri- surrounding
asap- as soon as possible
ABGs arterial blood gas
ac before meals
amb ambulate, walk
BP blood pressure
BS blood sugar
CBC complete blood count
FBS fasting blood sugar
pt patient
VS vital signs
w/c wheel chair
Dx diagnosis
po by mouth
Word Root or Combining Word Usually, but not always, means the body part the medical term is pertaining to
prefixes usually give location, time or number and is at the beginning of the medical term
suffixes usually indicate the procedure, disease or change to the body part and is at the end of a medical term
combining vowel is usually an o and is added at the end of a word root when a suffix starts with a constonant
Created by: vorachekt