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Drugs of Abuse

Drugs of Abuse - Pharm

Positive Reinforcement = ? * Animal does something, and get a reward with a drug directly in to the brain.... * Spot for reward pathway = nucleus accumbens and VTA
Neurotransmitter released during + reinforcement at the Nucleus Accumbens and VTA = ? * Dopamine.... * targeting the mesolimbic pathways
Some circuits involved with activation of the Nucleus Accumbens and VTA = ? * mvt, judgement, reward, memory, coordination ,vision and sensations
Even after successful withdrawal and prolonged drug-free periods, addicts are at a high risk of ? * Relapse
Pharmacokinetic Tolerance = ? * Reduction of [drug] OR shorter duration of action in a target system--- Have to take more drug to get same effect after awhile
Pharmacodynamic Tolerance = ? * Change in receptor function (desensitization and receptor internalization)
Cross-Tolerance = ? * people tolerant to one drug in a class are likely going to be tolerant to other drugs in the same class
Fastest way to get a cocaine high (snort or smoke?) ? * Smoking has a faster high (IV is still slightly faster)
Gi/o-coupled receptor drugs = ? * Opioids, cannabinoids, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, hallucinogens
Ionotropic receptors or ion channel drugs = ? * Nicotine, alcohol, benzodiazepines, dissociative anesthetics, some inhalants
Monoamine transporter activation drugs = ? * Cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy
These drugs alter perception WITHOUT causing sensations of reward and euphoria = ? * Non-addictive Drugs of Abuse
Non-addictive Drugs of Abuse and their MoA = ? * Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) – activates serotonin receptors in the PFC .....* Phencyclidine (PCP) and Ketamine – inhibition of the glutamate NMDA receptor..... * Gamma-hydroxybuturate (GHB)
Drug that exceeds all other forms of addiction = ? * Nicotine = Selective agonist of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAchR)
Nicotine TmT = ? * nicotine gum/patch... * Buproprion or Varenicline (a partial nAchR agonist) stops craving
Most used drug in the world = ? * Caffeine.... * Inhibits dopamine release --> causes mild stimulation
Benzos MoA and basics = ? * bind to GABA-a receptors... * need to taper off, no cold turkey
Cocaine routes = ? * injected, inhaled, or smoked
Cocaine MoA = ? * PNS: cocaine inhibits voltage-gated Na+ channels .... * CNS: blocks the reuptake of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin through there respective transporters
CNS MoA simplified = ? * cocaine stops the reuptake of NE in the NE transporters, increasing NE in the synaptic cleft.... * with NE not going back in the NET to be stored, vessicles make more NE (thinking it is depleted) and release more
Cocaine on D2 receptors = ? * Cocaine abuser = fewer dopamine rec available… (due to tolerance)
Amphetamine MoA = ? * reverse the action of dopamine and norepinephrine transporters, enter the cell and interfere with vesicular monoamine transport
MoA simplified = ? * Same effect as Cocaine, different MoA.... * Amphets. get taken up by NET, the cell thinks there is too much NE in the vessicle --> sends NE back out the NET to the synaptic cleft
Amphetamine administration = ? * Taken initially in pill form, but can smoked or injected
Ecstasy = ? * MDMA (mollys).... * MOA: similar to amphetamines, binds to the serotonin transporter  increases extracellular serotonin.....* Ravers, cause dehydration and they drink water and get water intox that leads to seizures
Cathinones = ? * Bath Salts = CNS stimulant and can see stuff
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) * Pharmacological actions mediated through GABA -B receptor... * Date Rape drug
LSD = ? * No addiction or dependence ..... * Induce perceptual symptoms (i.e.shape and color distortion)
Cannabinoids = ? * THC inhibits presynaptic GABA neurons in the VTA which enhances dopamine neurotransmission
**Medical Uses of Marijuana** .
Basics = ? * Can be recreational, decriminalized, or for medical use
Decriminalization = ? * decriminalization means no prison time or criminal record for first-time possession of a small amount for personal consumption. The conduct is treated like a minor traffic violation
Dronabinol = ? * “Synthetic THC” oral medication = Antiemetic and appetite stimulant (Schedule III)
Nabilone = ? * Oral medication = Antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy (schedule II)
Medical Marijuana Uses = ? * Cancer, Pain, Psych issues, HIV/AIDS, Neurodegenerative Disorders
Created by: thamrick800