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Ocular Diseases # 13

Questions Surgical and Microbiolody

A small incisional cataract surgery with IOL is called? This usually happens in the posterior chamber. Phacoemulsification
______________ lenses are usually placed within the capsular bag for better fixation. If this is not possible, then can be placed in the ciliary sulcus. Intraocular
What are the two types of IOLs? Posterior and Anterior
What used to be performed to prevent sympathetic ophthalmia? Enucleation
What is sympathetic ophthalmia? A bilateral diffuse severe uveitis following trauma to one eye. Can leave both eyes blind. Now prevented with steriods.
What is enucleation? Removal of the entire globe.
What is evisceration? Removal of contents of the globe, leaving sclera intact to enclose synthetic ball.
After you put a sample on an agar tube, plate ,or in a broth solution you must do what to promote growth? Incubate at 37 degrees Celsius
What is the liquid medium containing beef extract and peptone? Nutrient broth
What is the solid media containing beef extract, peptone, and agar? Nutrient agar
Agar is a complex polysaccharide and provides a framework for what? Holds moisture and nutrients. Allows microbe growth.
What is the process called where you can place different antibiotic discs on agar plates to determine bacterial resistance? Culture and Sensitivity
What happens with a C&S? Ring of inhibition of growth of microbe will show sensitivity to the antibiotic. If there is no ring of inhibition the bacteria is resistant to the antibiotic.
What is a C&S used for? Allows physician to pick the best antibiotic for that species of bacteria.
What type of stain is used most commonly for bacteria identification? Gram Stain
What are the types of stains used to identify bacteria? Gram stain, Methylene blue, Crystal Violet, KOH (potassium hydroxide- for fungi).
How do you determine a positive and a negative gram stain? A positive gram stain is purple and a negative is red.
What are endospores? They are the killers. They are resting dormant cells produced by gram + genera. They are the hardiest of all life forms.
How long can endospores live? They are on the verge of immortal, living 250 million years.
What doesn't kill endospores? Extremes in heat, drying, freezing, radiation, and chemicals
What DOES kill endospores? Pressurized steam at 120 degrees Celsius for 20-30 minutes (autoclave sterilization).
What are the three shapes of bacteria? Cocci, Bacilli, and Spiral
What are some characteristics of cocci bacteria? Spherical/ Staphylococci- most common cause of lid infections (gram+)
What are some characteristics of bacilli bacteria? Rod-shaped / Pseudomonas- contaminant of fluorescein
What are some characteristics of spiral bacteria? helical, comma, twisted rod, spirochete / syphilis- cornea, retina involvement
What are Rickettsia's? Very tiny gram negative bacteria. Most are pathogens that alternate between mammals and fleas, lice, or ticks.
What are some characteristics of Rickettsia's? Obligated intracellular pathogens/ cannot survive or multiply outside of a host cell / cannot carry out metabolism on their own.
What are some examples of Rickettsia's? Pickettsia prowazekii -Epidemic typhus / Rickettsia rickettsia - Rocky Mountain spotted fever
What are mycoplasmas? Smallest bacteria / range in shape from filamentous to coccus or doughnut shaped / atypical pneumonia in humans/ TB
What is used to diagnose mycoplasmas (TB)? PPD skin test
What is a pathogenic bacteria most commonly associated with STD's and neonatal conjunctivitis? Chlamydia
What type of blood tests are used to diagnose syphilis, RA, immune disorders, and antinuclear antibodies? Serological tests
Created by: Leequa