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Gastrointestinal System Reverse Definitions

small intestine A continuation of the GI tract responsible for absorption. Consists of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
epiglottis A flap of tissue covering the trachea, which prevents food and liquids from entering the airway.
sigmoid colon A flexure of the colon which joins the descending colon and the rectum.
cholelith A gallstone.
ulcer A lesion of the skin or mucous membrane which frequently develops in the duodenum or stomach.
esophagus A muscular canal which extends from the pharynx to the stomach
stomach A sac-like structure in the abdominal cavity, responsible for digestion of food.
occult blood A test in which stool samples are collected to determine intestinal bleeding.
ascites Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, most commonly as a result of chronic liver disease.
hernia Abnormal protrusion of an organ or tissue through the structure that normally contains it.
achlorhydria absence of hydrochloric acid in the stomach
colon Also called the large intestine; it is divided into four portions and is responsible for absorption and elimination.
stoma An artificial opening, in this case, one from the bowel through the abdominal wall.
bulimia An eating disorder characterized by binge eating, purging, and vigorous exercise
gallbladder An organ below the liver which stores and empties bile through its ducts into the small intestine.
pancreas An organ which uses ducts to provide exocrine secretions to the duodenum to aid in digestion.
esophagojejunostomy Anastomosis of the esophagus and jejunum.
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Backflow of the gastric contents into the esophagus due to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle at the inferior portion of the esophagus
regurgitation backward flowing, as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RGB) Bariatric surgery that involves stapling the stomach to decrease its size
vertical banded gastroplasty Bariatric surgery that involves vertical stapling of the upper stomach near the esophagus to reduce it to a small pouch
morbid obesity Body mass index of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 pounds or more over ideal body weight.
trachea Cartilaginous tube which extends from the larynx to the bronchial tubes.
mastication Chewing-the first part of digestion.
sphincter Circular band of muscle fibers that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening of the body.
endoscopic ultrasound Combines endoscopy and ultrasound to examine and obtain images of the digestive tract and the surrounding tissue and organs.
antidiarrheals Control loose stools and relieve diarrhea by absorbing excess water in the bowel or slowing peristalsis in the intestinal tract.
antiemetics Control nausea and vomiting by blocking nerve impulses to the vomiting center of the brain.
antacids Counteract or neutralize acidity usually in the stomach.
colostomy Creation of an opening of a portion of the colon through the abdominal wall to its outside surface in order to divert fecal flow to a colostomy bag.
antispasmodics Decrease gastrointestinal spasms by slowing peristalsis and motility throughout the GI tract.
hepatomegaly Enlargement of the liver.
obesity Excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight.
polypectomy Excision of a polyp.
fecalith Fecal concentration.
cecum First 2-3" of the large intestine.
ascending colon First portion of the colon, extending from the cecum to the lower border of the liver.
Crohn disease Form of inflammatory bowel disease, usually of the ileum but possible affecting any portion of the intestinal tract; also called regional enteritis.
oral leukoplakia Formation of white spots or patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue, lips, or cheek caused primarily by irritation.
halitosis Foul-smelling breath.
flatus Gas in the GI tract; expelling of air from a body orifice, especially the anus.
exocrine Gland that secretes it products through excretory ducts to the surface of an organ or tissue into a vessel.
liver function tests (LFTs) Group of blood tests that evaluate liver injury, liver function, and conditions often associated with the biliary tract.
bariatric surgery Group of procedures that treat morbid obesity, a condition which arises from severe accumulation of excess weight as fatty tissue, and the resultant heath problems.
ultrasonography High-frequency sound waves are directed as soft tissue and reflected as "echoes" to produce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure
computed tomography (CT) Imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles.
dysphagia Inability or difficulty swallowing; also called aphagia.
pyloromyotomy Incision of the longitudinal and circular muscles of the pylorus, which is used to treat hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.
ulcerative colitis Inflammation an ulceration of the innermost lining if the colon.
diverticulitis Inflammation of a sac-like bulge that may develop in the wall of the large intestine.
appendicitis Inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection.
dysentery Inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, that may be caused by ingesting water or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites, which results in bloody diarrhea.
stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth of the stomach.
gastritis Inflammation of the stomach
nasogastric intubation Insertion of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach to relieve gastric distension by removing gas, food, or fluids; or obtain a specimen for laboratory analysis.
anorexia Lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat.
rectum Last portion of the GI tract which terminates at the anus.
ileum Lower division of the small intestine
cholangiopancreatography Magnetic resonance imaging is used to visualize the biliary and pancreatic ducts and gallbladder in a non-invasive manner.
bolus Mass of masticated food ready to be swallowed.
serum bilirubin Measurement of the level of bilirubin in the blood.
proctologist One who specializes in diseases of the colon, rectum, and anus.
bilirubin Orange-yellow pigment formed during destruction of erythrocytes that is taken up by liver cells to form bilirubin and eventually excreted in the feces.
triglycerides Organic compound, a true fat, that is made of one glycerol and three fatty acids.
hepatitis panel Panel of blood tests that identify the specific virus-hepatitis A, hepatitis B, or hepatitis C-that is causing hepatitis by testing serum using antibodies to each of these antigens.
melena Passage of dark-coloured, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices.
steatorrhea Passage of fat in large amounts in the feces due to failure to digest and absorb it.
pharynx Passageway for air from the nose to the larynx and for food from the mouth to the esophagus.
anorectal Pertaining to both the anus and the rectum.
celiac Pertaining to the abdomen.
buccal Pertaining to the cheek.
lingual Pertaining to the tongue.
cachexia Physical wasting that includes loss of weight and muscular mass; commonly associated with AIDS and cancer.
sialolithiasis Presence of a stone in the salivary gland.
cholelithiasis Presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct
lithotripsy Procedure for crushing a stone and eliminating its fragments surgically or using ultrasonic waves
eructation Producing gas from the stomach, usually with a characteristic sound; also called beltching.
peristalsis Progressive wave-like movement that occurs involuntary in hollow tubes of the body, especially the GI tract.
gastrointestinal system Provides the body with nutrients, electrolytes and water by ingestion, digestion, elimination, and absorption.
upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) Radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following oral administration of barium; also called barium swallow
lower gastrointestinal series Radiographic examination of the rectum and colon following enema administration of barium into the rectum; also called lower GI series or barium enema
oral cholecytography (OCG) Radiographic images taken of the gallbladder after administration of a contrast material containing iodine, usually in the form of a tablet.
cholecystogram Radiographic record of the gallbladder.
liver scan Radiographic visualization of the liver after injection of a radiographic substance.
sialography Radiographic visualization of the salivary glands and ducts.
choledocholithotomy Removal of a gallstone through an incision of the bile duct.
borborygmus Rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine.
cirrhosis Scarring and dysfunction of the liver caused by chronic liver disease.
jejunum Second division of the small intestine.
transverse colon Second portion of the colon that passes horizontally across the abdomen.
obstipation Severe constipation, which may be caused by an intestinal obstruction.
colic Spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ especially in the colon, accompanied by pain.
pyloric stenosis Stricture or narrowing of the pyloric sphincter at the outlet of the stomach, causing an obstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine.
ileorectal (anastomosis) Surgical connection of the ileum and rectum after total colectomy, as is sometimes performed in the treatment of ulcerative colitis.
intestinal (anastomosis) Surgical connection of two portions of the intestines; also called enterostomy.
ileostomy Surgical formation of an opening from the ileum through the abdominal wall
anastamosis Surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another.
jejunorraphy Surgical repair of the jejunum.
cheiloplasty Surgical repair of the lip.
proctoplasty Surgical repair or reconstruction of the rectum or colon.
aerophagia Swallowing air.
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Symptom complex marked by abdominal pain and altered bowel function for which no organic cause can be determined; also called spastic colon.
malabsorption (syndrome) Symptom complex of the small intestine characterized by the impaired passage of nutrients, minerals, or fluids through intestinal villi into the blood or lymph.
stool guaiac Test that applies a substance called guaiac to a stool sample to detect the presence of occult blood in the feces; also called Hemoccult.
stool culture Test to identify microorganisms or parasites present in feces that are causing a gastrointestinal infection.
oropharynx The central part of the throat between the soft palate and epiglottis.
anal sphincter The constricting muscle at the anus which relaxes to allow passage of stool.
enema The introduction of liquid into the rectum for cleansing the bowel and for stimulating evacuation of the bowels.
liver The largest glandular organ which functions include: producing bile, removing glucose from the blood, and storing vitamins.
laryngopharynx The lower portion of the pharynx which divides into the trachea and esophagus.
anus The outlet of the rectum.
absorption The passage of simple nutrients into the blood stream.
diarrhea The passage of unformed, watery bowel movements
nasopharynx The portion of the throat above the soft palate and behind the nose.
digestion The process by which food is broken down, mechanically and chemically in the GI tract and converted into an absorbable form that can be used by the body.
descending colon Third continuation of the colon which joins and forms the sigmoid colon.
ingest To eat.
elimination To pass urine from the bladder or stool from the bowel.
laxatives Treat constipation by increasing peristaltic activity in the large intestine or increasing water and electrolyte secretion into the bowel to induce defecation.
cholangioma Tumor of the bile duct or vessel
abdominal ultrasonography Ultrasound visualization of the abdominal aorta, liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, and bladder.
duodenum Uppermost division of the small intestine; receives secretions to aid in digestion.
extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy Use of shock-waves as a non-invasive method to break up stones in the gallbladder or biliary ducts.
endoscopy Visual examination of a cavity or canal using a flexible fiberoptic instrument called an endoscope.
gastrointestinal endoscopy Visual examination of the gastrointestinal tract using a flexible fiberoptic instrument with a magnifying lens and a light source to identify abnormalities, including bleeding, ulcerations, and tumours.
hematemesis Vomiting of blood from bleeding in the stomach or esophagus.
enterostomy surgical formation of an opening from the small intestine through the abdominal wall
magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) Magnetic resonance imaging is used to visualize the biliary and pancreatic ducts and gall bladder in a non-invasive manner
Created by: DawnLangridge