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Orange Review

Gastrointestinal System Review

rugae microscopic longitudinal folds in the stomach, unfolds as stomach fills(mucus membranes in interior lining of stomach); secrete hydrochloric acid and enzymes
accessory organs of the GI system liver, pancreas, gallbladder
four divisions of the colon ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon
functions of the liver produce bile; remove glucose from blood; store vitamins (B12,A,D,E&K); destroy/transform toxic products to less harmful; maintain normal glucose level; destroy old RBCs and release bilirubin; produce proteins that aid in blood clotting
three main components of large intestine cecum, colon, rectum
three main parts of stomach body, fundus, pylorus
two structure that form roof of mouth hard palate, soft palate
medical term for mouth oral cavity
another name for GI tract alimentary canal
villi microscopic finger-like projections in small intestine that absorb nutrients in chyme
where peristalsis occurs GI tract (from pharynx to anus)
where digestion is completed small intestine
what is volvulus intestinal twisting that causes obstruction (life-threatening)
hemorrhoids enlarged veins in the mucus membrane of the anal canal
causes of Hepatitis A ingestion of contaminated food, water, or milk
diverticulitis condition in which small blister-like pockets develop in the inner lining of the large intestine (may balloon through intestinal wall)
ulcerative colitis chronic inflammatory disease of large intestine and rectum; begins in rectum or sigmoid colon and extends upward into entire colon
where ulcers are commonly found stomach (gastric ulcers), duodenum (duodenal ulcer)
where inguinal hernias develop in groin where abdominal folds of flesh meet the thighs
disorder associated with high risk of colon cancer ulcerative colitis
ascites Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
deglutition Act of swallowing
regurgitation Backward flowing, as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach
fecalith fecal concentration
cholelithiasis formation of gallstones
flatus gas in the GI tract
anorexia lack or loss of appetite, resulting in inability to eat
serum bilirubin measurement of the level of bilirubin in the blood
halitosis offensive, or bad breath
melena passage of dark-coloured, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices
steatorrhea passage of fat in large amounts in the feces
lithotripsy procedure for crushing a stone
eructation producing gas from the stomach
peristalsis progressive, wave-like movement
upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine
lower gastrointestinal series radiographic examination of the rectum and colon
cholecystogram radiographic record of the gallbladder
borborygmus rumbling or gurgling noises that are audible at a distance
cirrhosis scarring and dysfunction of the liver
obstipation severe constipation
pyloric stenosis stricture or narrowing of the pyloric sphincter
anastamosis surgical joining of two ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one another
aerophagia swallowing air
ingest to eat
hematemesis vomiting of blood
malabsorption when nutrients are digested but not taken in by the intestinal tissues
oral leukoplakia white pates that form on the tongue, lips, or cheek
Ba barium
BaE, BE barium enema
BM bowel movement
CF cystic fibrosis
CT computed tomography
EGD esophagogastroduodenoscopy
ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
GB gallbladder
GERD gastroesophageal reflux disease
GI gastrointestinal
HBV hepatitis B virus
IBS irritable bowel syndrome
LFT liver function test
PE physical examination
PMH past medical history
PUD peptic ulcer disease
R/O rule out
RGB Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
STAT immediately
Created by: DawnLangridge