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accuracy the correctness of a number in its representation of a given value
Arabic numbers a numbering system that uses numeric symbols to indicate numbers, fractions, and decimals; uses the numerals 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9
common denominator a number into which each of the unlike denominators of two or more fractions can be divided evenly
complex fraction a fraction in which both the numerator and the denominator are fractions
decimal a fraction value in which the denominator is 10 or some power of 10
denominator the number in the bottom part of a fraction
fraction a portion of a whole that is represented as a ratio
improper fraction a fraction with a value greater than 1 (the value of the numerator is larger than the value of the denominator)
leading zero a zero that is placed to the left of the decimal point, in the ones place, in a number that is less than one and is being represented by a decimal value
lowest known place value the last digit on the right of a written numeral
military time a system of time based on a 24-hour format
mixed number a whole number and a fraction
numerator the number in the top part of a fraction
place value the location of a numeral in a string of numbers that describes the numeral's relationship to the decimal point
product the result of multiplying one number by another
proper fraction a fraction with a value of less than 1 (the value of the numerator is smaller than the value of the denominator)
quotient the result of dividing one number by another
Roman numerals a numbering system that uses alphabetic symbols to indicate a quantity; uses the letters I, V, and X to represent 1, 5, and 10, respectively
scientific notation a method used to write numbers that have a very large or very small numerical value; uses "x 10" with an exponent
significant figures the figures in a numeral that are known values and have not been rounded or estimated in the process of mathematical calculation, plus the digit in the lowest place value, which is approximate
standard time a system of time that relates to the natural day and is based on a 12-hour format
sum the result of adding two or more numbers together
trailing zero a zero that appears at the end of a decimal string and is not needed except when considered significant
conversion factor an equivalency equal to 1 that can be used when converting units of measure using the ratio-proportion method
percent the number of parts per 100; can be written as a fraction, a decimal, or a ratio
percentage of error the percentage by which a measurement is inaccurate
proportion an expression of equality between two ratios
ratio a numerical representation of the relationship between two parts of the whole or between one part and the whole
ratio-proportion method a conversion method based on comparing a complete ratio to a ratio with a missing component
brand name the name under which the manufacturer markets a drug; a registered trademark of the manufacturer; also known as the trade name
days' supply the number of days that a prescription or medication order will last a patient when taken as directed by the prescriber
DEA number a number issued by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to signify the authority of the holder to prescribe or handle controlled substances; made up of two letters followed by seven digits, the last of which is a checksum digit used to check the vali
dose on a prescription, the indication of how much medication the patient will take at each administration
dosing schedule on a prescription, the indication of how often the drug is to be taken
generic name the name under which a drug is approved by the Food and Drug Administration; sometimes denotes a drug that is not protected by a trademark; also referred to as a USAN (United States Adopted Name)
prescription an order for medication for a patient that is written by a physician or a qualified licensed practitioner to be filled by a pharmacist
route of administration on a prescription, the indication of how the medication is to be given
signa (sig) from the Latin word for "write"; the part of the prescription that provides instructions for proper use of the medication, including the dose, route of administration, and dosing schedule
body surface area (BSA) a measurement related to a patient's weight and height, expressed in meters squared (m^2), and used to calculate patient-specific doses of medications
Clark's Rule a formula used to determine an appropriate pediatric dose by using the child's weight in pounds and the normal adult dose; weight in lb/150 lb * adult dose = pediatric dose
dimensional analysis method a conversion method in which the given number and unit are multiplied by the ratio of the desired unit to the given unit, which is equivalent to 1
gram the basic unit for measuring weight in the metric system
liter the basic unit for measuring volume in the metric system
meter the basic unit for measuring length in the metric system
metric system a measurement system based on subdivisions and multiples of 10; made up of three basic units: meter, gram, and liter
vehicle an inert medium, such as a syrup, in which a drug is administered
Young's Rule a formula used to determine an appropriate pediatric dose by using the child's age in years and the normal adult dose; age in years/(age in years + 12 years) * adult dose = pediatric dose
Celsius a thermometric scale in which 100 degrees is the boiling point of water and 0 degrees is the freezing point of water
dosing table a table providing dose recommendations based on the age and/or the weight of the patient; often used for determining the safe dose for a pediatric patient
Fahrenheit a thermometric scale in which 212 degrees is the boiling point of water and 32 degrees is the freezing point of water
household measure a system of measure used in homes, particularly in kitchens, in the United States; units of measure for volume include teaspoonful, tablespoonful, cup, pint, quart, and gallon; units for weight are pound and ounce
atomic weight the weight of a single atom of an element compared with the weight of a single atom of hydrogen
electrolytes substances such as mineral salts that carry an electrical charge when dissolved in a solution
infusion the administration of a large volume of liquid medication given parenterally over a long period
injection a method of administering medications in which a syringe with a needle or cannula is used to penetrate through the skin or membrane into the tissue below
intramuscular (IM) injection an injection given into the aqueous muscle tissue
intravenous (IV) infusion the injection of fluid into the veins
milliequivalent (mEq) the ratio of the weight of a molecule to its valence, used to measure the concentration of electrolytes in a volume of solution; also an amount of medication that will provide the patient with a specific amount (equivalent amount) of an electrolyte
millimole (mM) molecular weight expressed in milligrams
molecular weight the sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in one molecule of a compound
parenteral administered by injection and not by way of the gastrointestinal system
powder volume (pv) the space occupied by dry pharmaceuticals, calculated as the difference between the final volume and the volume of the diluting ingredient, or the diluent volume; the amount of space occupied by lyophilized (freeze-dried) medication in a sterile vial, use
ratio strength a means of describing the concentration of a liquid medication based on a ratio such as a grams:b milliliters
subcutaneous (SC) injection an injection given into the vascular, fatty layer of tissue under the skin
unit the amount of activity associated with a medication that has a biological impact on a patient
valence the ability of a molecule to bond, as indicated by its positive or negative charge, represented by a superscript plus or minus sign next to an element's chemical symbol
drop factor the number of drops an IV set takes to make 1 mL; also called drip set
flow rate the rate, expressed in milliliters per hour or drops per minute, at which medication is flowing through an IV line; also called infusion rate and rate of infusion
mini-drip set a drop set at a rate of 60 gtts/mL
solute the substance dissolved in the liquid solvent in a solution
solution a mixture of two or more substances
solvent the liquid that dissolves the solute in a solution
volume in volume (v/v) the number of milliliters of a drug (solute) in 100 mL of the final product (solution)
weight in volume (w/v) the number of grams of a drug (solute) in 100 mL of the final product (solution)
active ingredient the component of a pharmaceutical preparation or medication that exerts pharmacological activity designed to treat or prevent disease
additive a pharmaceutical substance, such as a medication, electrolyte, or other ingredient, that is added to another product, such as a compounded sterile preparation, in order to be easily administered to a patient
alligation method the mathematical calculation used to determine the amounts of two or more dilutions of differing strengths that will be mixed to prepare a product of a desired strength and quantity
compounded sterile preparation (CSP) the mixing of one or more sterile parenteral products using aseptic technique
compounded stock preparation a solution that is prepared in a large amount and kept in stock in the pharmacy to be divided for individual prescriptions
compounding the process of using raw ingredients and/or other prepared ingredients to create a drug product for a patient
current formula a standard pharmaceutical recipe that is commonly used in pharmacy compounding; a recipe often used to prepare compounded stock preparations
desired formula a specialized pharmaceutical recipe that may be ordered by the prescriber and that results from altering various components of the current formula
formula a written document listing the ingredients and instructions needed to prepare a compound
inactive ingredient an inert ingredient that is used as a base, or vehicle, to deliver the active ingredient in a compounded preparation; for example, petrolatum is used as a base in many topical preparations
percentage strength a mathematical formula or expression used to identify the number of grams of active ingredient per 100 mL of solution (or per 100 g of solid); may be referred to as percent strength
special dilution a custom-made CSP that provides accurate dosage of a medication prepared according to a desired recipe or formula; a term often associated with certain neonatal or pediatric CSPs
total parenteral nutrition (TPN) IV administration of total nutrient requirements to patients who require a long-term alternative to enteral feeding
TPN base solution components of the TPN solution that provide the primary volumetric source of hydration and calories, often comprised of a combination of dextrose, amino acids, fat emulsion, and sterile water
weight-in-weight (w/w) formula the number of grams of a drug (solid) in 100 g of the final product (solid)
assets properties, furnishings, inventory, supplies, and equipment owned by the pharmacy; may be put into two categories: current, or short-term, assets and long-term assets
average wholesale price (AWP) an average price at which drugs are purchased at the wholesale level, or the average value at which wholesalers sell a particular drug to pharmacies
base profit the amount of profit determined by subtracting the total pharmacy overhead amount from the pharmacy's income
capitation fee a monthly fee paid by some insurance plans to a pharmacy under a specific prescription reimbursement plan
current percentage of profit the amount of profit that is determined by dividing the base profit by income and then multiplying that quotient by 100; often used to determine the desired percentage of profit
depreciation an allowance made to account for the decreasing value of a fixed asset; properties, furnishings, and equipment owned by the pharmacy are called fixed assets, or simply assets
desired percentage of profit the percentage of profit the pharmacy intends to make on the product after the overall cost is subtracted from the selling price
discount a price that is reduced from what is typically charged
discount rate the percent that the discounted price is reduced from the regular selling price
dispensing fee the amount that is charged over and above the pharmacy's purchase price for a medication; this amount is meant to cover all costs related to filling a prescription, beyond the purchase price of the drug
disposal value the value of an item should it be sold or disposed of at the end of its useful life
flat rate a low pharmacy selling price for a certain amount of medication, a supply designed to last a specific number of days
gross profit the difference between the pharmacy's selling price and purchase price
income the money or equivalent received from the sale of medications, supply items, or equipment
inventory a listing of all of the items that are available for sale in a business
inventory value the total value of all of the drugs and merchandise in stock on a given day
markup rate a percentage amount that is determined by subtracting the pharmacy's purchase price for an item from the pharmacy's selling price for that item
net profit the difference between the selling price and the overall cost
overall cost the sum of the cost to purchase the drug from the manufacturer (known as the pharmacy's purchase price) and the cost to dispense the drug
overhead the pharmacy's cost of doing business; this cost includes personnel salaries, equipment, and operating expenses such as rent, taxes, and utilities
par level an average inventory range for an item, which generally includes the minimum and maximum stock levels for the item
pharmacy benefits management (PBM) a large prescription processing service that contracts with insurance companies and pharmacies to process insurance reimbursement
profit the financial gain made when the amount earned is greater than the amount spent during a specified period
profit margin the difference between the cost of doing business (the pharmacy's purchase price, overhead, and preparation costs) and the selling price of a drug or product
purchase price the cost to purchase the drug from the wholesaler or manufacturer
selling price the amount that the pharmacy charges for a particular drug or product; sometimes referred to as accounts receivable
turnover rate the number of times the amount of goods in inventory was sold during the year
wholesaler a company that sells and distributes a large number of goods such as medications and supply items to a pharmacy; a company that acts as a go-between for pharmacies and manufacturing companies such as drug manufacturers
Created by: softcrylic