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05.6 Gastroentero

Terms and conditions of the Gastroenterology unit.

albumin the major protein molecule in the blood, produced by the liver
anus the external opening of the rectum, located between the buttocks
benign non-cancerous
bile a yellow-green, bitter-tasting thick fluid produced by the liver, a combination of bile acids, mucus, fluid and 2 pigments
bile duct ducts which transport bile from the liver to the duodenum, collectively known as the biliary tree
bilirubin the yellow pigment in bile
biliverdin the green pigment in bile
cardia small area where the esophagus enters the stomach
cecum a short sac-like portion of the large intestine
Crohn a type of inflammatory bowel disease
chime partially digested food, saliva, and digestive enzymes in the stomach and small intestine
colon the longest part of the large intestine, traveling through all four quadrants of the abdomen
diverticulum weakness in the wall of the colon where the mucosa forms a pouch or tube.
duodenum a 10-inch C-shaped segment beginning at the stomach and ending after the jejunum
elimination undigested materials and water are eliminated from the body in a solid waste form
emesis the expelling of food from the stomach through the mouth
enema liquid instilled into the rectum and colon
enzymes proteins that speed up chemical reactions in the body
esophagus a flexible, muscular tube connecting the pharynx to the stomach
feces (also stool) formed, solid waste composed of undigested material, bacteria, and water that is eliminated from the body
flatus gas produced by bacteria that inhabit the large intestine
fundus rounded, most superior part of the stomach
gallbladder a teardrop-shaped, dark green sac posterior to the liver which concentrates and stores bile from the liver
gluten a mixture of insoluble plant proteins occurring in cereal grains, chiefly corn and wheat, used as an adhesive and as a flour substitute.
gravidarum pregnancy
haustra pouches in the wall of the large intestine that expand to accommodate the bulk of undigested materials
hernia weakness in the muscle of the diaphragm or abdominal wall. The intestine bulges through the defect.
ileum a 12-foot segment of the small intestine where absorption of nutrients is completed
ileus abnormal absence of peristalsis in the small and large intestines
intestine the lower part of the alimentary canal, extending from the pylorus to the anus
jejunum the 8-foot, second part of the small intestine which twists and turns in the abdominal cavity
liver a large, dark, red-brown organ located in the upper abdomen
lumen open channel inside a tubular structure such as the esophagus, small intestine, and large intestine
omentum an extension of the peritoneum which supports the stomach and hangs down as a fatty apron to cover and protect the small intestine
meconium a thick, sticky, green-to-black waste that is passed after birth
melena dark, tar-like feces that contains digested blood from bleeding in the esophagus or stomach
mesentery a thick fan-shaped extension of the peritoneum, which supports the jejunum and ileum
mucosa mucous membrane that lines the gastrointestinal system and produces mucus
nausea an unpleasant, queasy feeling in the stomach that precedes the urge to vomit
pancreas a yellow, lumpy gland posterior to the stomach which secretes digestive enzymes into the duodenum
palate the hard bone and posterior soft tissues that form the roof of the mouth
patent open
pedunculated having a thin stalk that supports an irregular, ball-shaped top
peritoneum a double-layer serous membrane , one lining the abdominopelvic cavity, the other surrounds each of the organs
pharynx the passageway for food as well as inhaled and exhaled air
polyp small, fleshy benign or precancerous growth in mucosa
pyloris one of four regions of the stomach
rectum a short, straight segment of colon that connects to the outside of the body
reflux a flowing back; regurgitation
rugae thick, deep folds of gastric mucosa that expand as the stomach fills with food
saliva a lubricant that moistens food as it is chewed and swallowed, also containing an enzyme that begins digestion
sessile a mound with a broad base
sigmoid the last portion of the colon which bends toward the midline and joins the rectum
stool (also feces) a solid waste form of undigested materials and water
sphincter a muscular ring
stoma an artificial permanent opening especially in the abdominal wall made in surgical procedures
ulcer erosion of tissue
uvula fleshy hanging part of soft palate, plays a role in speech and during swallowing
varix, varices swollen, protruding vein(s)
villi small, thin structures that project into an area, in the small intestine they increase the surface area to maximize absorption of food and nutrients through the intestinal wall into the blood.
Created by: vikingmedterm