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antiemetic a drug that inhibits impulses that cause vomiting from going to the stomach
body mass index (BMI) a guide to use in determining whether to initiate pharmacologic treatment for obesity; calculated by dividing the patient's weight (in kilograms) by the patient's height (in meters) squared (kg/m2)
bowel evacuant an agent used to empty the colon prior to GI examination or after toxic ingestion
chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ) an area below the floor of the fourth ventricle of the brain that can trigger nausea and vomiting when certain signals are received
Crohn disease an inflammatory bowel disease affecting the entire GI tract from mouth to anus
diverticular disease formation and inflammation of an outpocketing from the colon wall
duodenal ulcer a peptic lesion situated in the duodenum
emesis vomiting
empty stomach 2 hours before or after eating
fiber the undigested residue of fruits, vegetables, and other foods of plant origin that remains after digestion by the human GI enzymes; characterized by fermentability and may be either water soluble or insoluble
gastric stasis lack of stomach motility
gastric ulcer a local excavation in the gastric mucosa
gastritis irritation and superficial erosion of the stomach lining
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) a GI disease characterized by radiating burning or pain in the chest and an acid taste, caused by backflow of acidic stomach contents across an incompetent lower esophageal sphincter; also referred to as heartburn
gastrointestinal (GI) tract a continuous tube that begins in the mouth and extends through the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine to end at the anus
GI transit time the time it takes for material to pass from one end of the GI tract to the other; the slower the GI transit time, the greater the amounts of nutrients and water absorbed
H2 histamine receptor antagonist an agent that blocks acid and pepsin secretion in response to histamine, gastrin, foods, distention, caffeine, or cholinergic stimulation; used to treat GERD and H. pylori
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) a bacterium that contributes to the development of many gastric ulcers
hemorrhoids engorgements of the vascular cushions situated within the sphincter muscles; result from pressure exerted on anal veins while straining to pass a stool
hepatitis a disease of the liver that causes inflammation, can be acute or chronic, and has several forms A through G
hepatitis A a viral form of hepatitis that is usually mild and transient and can be spread from one person to another
hepatitis B the most dangerous form of hepatitis, accompanied by jaundice and easily spread from one person to another
hepatitis C an infection of the liver that cannot be spread from one person to another by contact; most commonly transmitted by blood transfusions or illicit drug use
hiatal hernia a protrusion through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm
host the animal on which a parasite feeds
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) a functional disorder in which the lower GI tract does not have appropriate tone or spasticity to regulate bowel activity
IVIG the notation for immune globulin that is given intravenously
malabsorption syndrome impaired intestinal absorption of nutrients
malaria an infectious febrile disease caused by the protozoan Plasmodium and transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito
morbid obesity a state in which an individual's weight is two or more times the ideal body weight (IBW)
obesity a state in which an individual's total body weight includes greater quantities of fat than is considered normal (25% of total body weight for men and 35% for women)
osmotic laxative an organic substance that draws water into the colon and thereby stimulates evacuation
parasite an organism that lives on or in another organism (known as the host), surviving by drawing nourishment from the food or the tissues of the host; the parasite lives within the intermediate host during the larval stage and within the definitive host at matu
peptic disease disorders of the upper GI tract caused by the action of acid and pepsin; includes mucosal injury, erythema, erosions, and frank ulceration
peptic ulcer an ulcer formed at any part of the GI tract exposed to acid and the enzyme pepsin
phenothiazine a drug, related to the typical antipsychotics, that controls vomiting by inhibiting the CTZ
proton pump inhibitor a drug that blocks gastric acid secretion by inhibiting the enzyme that pumps hydrogen ions into the stomach
protozoan single-celled animal
reflux backflow; specifically in GERD, the backflow of acidic stomach contents across an incompetent lower esophageal sphincter
saline laxative an inorganic salt that attracts water into the hollow portion (lumen) of the colon, increasing intraluminal pressure to cause evacuation
stimulant laxative a laxative that increases gut activity by irritating the mucosa
stress ulcer a peptic ulcer, usually gastric, that occurs in a clinical setting; caused by a breakdown of natural mucosal resistance
surfactant laxative a stool softener that has a detergent activity that facilitates mixing of fat and water, making the stool soft and mushy
traveler's diarrhea diarrhea caused by ingesting contaminated food or water; so called because it is often contracted by travelers in countries where the water supply is contaminated
ulcer a local defect or excavation of the surface of an organ or tissue
ulcerative colitis irritation and inflammation of the large bowel, causing it to look scraped; characterized by bloody mucus leading to watery diarrhea containing blood, mucus, and pus
vector an animal that transfers a parasite to a host
vertigo the sensation of the room spinning when one gets up or changes positions; can be treated with anticholinergic agents
Created by: softcrylic