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addiction a compulsive disorder that leads to continued use of a drug despite harm to the user
afferent system the nerves and sense organs that bring information to the CNS; part of the peripheral nervous system
alpha receptors (alpha-adrenergic receptors) nerve receptors that control vasoconstriction, pupil dilation, and relaxation of the GI smooth muscle in response to epinephrine
amide a compound containing a -CONH- group; a longer-acting local anesthetic that is metabolized by liver enzymes
analgesic a drug that alleviates pain
analgesic ladder a guideline for selecting pain-relieving medications according to the severity of the pain and whether agents lower on the ladder have been able to control the pain
anesthesiologist a physician who oversees administration of anesthesia during surgery
antagonists drugs used to reverse the effects of other drugs, such as in treatment of benzodiazepine or narcotic overdoses
anticholinesterase a drug that potentiates the action of acetylcholine by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which breaks acetylcholine down
aura a subjective sensation or motor phenomenon that precedes and marks the onset of amigraine headache
autonomic nervous system (ANS) the part of the efferent system of the PNS that regulates activities of body structures not under voluntary control
beta-1 receptors nerve receptors on the heart that control the rate and strength of the heartbeat in response to epinephrine
beta-2 receptors nerve receptors that control vasodilation and relaxation of the smooth muscle of the airways in response to epinephrine
central nervous system (CNS) the brain and spinal cord
dependence a physical and emotional reliance on a drug
efferent system the nerves that dispatch information out from the CNS; part of the peripheral nervous system
endotracheal intubation insertion of a tube into the trachea to keep it open
ester a compound containing a -COO- group; a short-acting local anesthetic, metabolized by pseudocholinesterase of the plasma and tissue fluids
general anesthesia a condition characterized by reversible unconsciousness, analgesia, skeletal muscle relaxation, and amnesia on recovery
local anesthesia the production of transient and reversible loss of sensation in a defined area of the body
malignant hyperthermia a rare, but serious, side effect of anesthesia associated with an increase in intracellular calcium and a rapid rise in body temperature
migraine headache a severe, throbbing, unilateral headache, usually accompanied by nausea, photophobia, phonophobia, and hyperesthesia
narcotic analgesic pain medication containing an opioid
neuromuscular blocking skeletal muscle paralysis
neuron a nerve cell that transmits information
neurotransmitter a chemical substance that is selectively released from a neuron and stimulates or inhibits activity in the neuron's target cell
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) a drug such as aspirin or ibuprofen that reduces pain and inflammation
opiate a narcotic that is either derived from opium or synthetically produced to resemble opium derivatives chemically
opioid a substance, whether a drug or a chemical naturally produced by the body, that acts on opioid receptors to reduce the sensation of pain
pain the electrical activity in afferent neurons with sensory endings in peripheral tissue with a higher threshold than those of temperature or touch; a signal to warn of damage or presence of disease; the fifth vital sign; classified as acute, chronic nonmali
patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) pump a means of pain control whereby the patient can regulate, within certain limits, the administration of pain medication
peripheral nervous system (PNS) the nerves and sense organs outside the CNS
somatic nervous system the part of the efferent system of the PNS that regulates the skeletal muscles
vascular theory a theory that proposes that migraine headaches are caused by vasodilation and the concomitant mechanical stimulation of sensory nerve endings
Created by: softcrylic