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Environ, Advocacy

Environ., Advocacy and Emergence of Planning Profession (1960s - 1970s)

1962 "A Choice Theory of Planning" seminal article in AIP Journal by Paul Davidoff and Thomas Reiner, lays basis for advocacy planning concept.
1962 Rachel Carson's book, "Silent Spring" is published and wakes the nation to the deleterious effects of pesticides on animal, plant and human life.
1964 T.J. Kent publishes "The Urban General Plan"
1965 A White House Conference on Natural Beauty in America is convened on May 24 and 25, owing much to the interest and advocacy of the First Lady, Lady Bird Johnson.
1965 Housing and urban policy achieve cabinet status when the Housing and Home Finance Agency is succeeded by the Dept. of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
1965 Congress passes the Water Resources Management Act authorizing Federal-Multistate river basin commissions.
1965 The Public Work and Economic Development Act passes Congress. This act establishes the Economic Development Administration to extend coordinated, multifaceted aid to lagging regions and foster their redevelopment.
1965 The Appalachian Regional Planning Act establishes a region comprising all of West Virginia and parts of 12 other states, plus a planning commission with the power to frame plans and allocate resources.
1965 John Reps publishes "The Making of Urban America", the first comprehensive history of American urban planning beginning with colonial times.
1966 The Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act launched the "model cities" program, an interdisciplinary attack on urban blight and poverty. A centerpiece of President Lyndon Johnson's "Great Society" program.
1966 "With Heritage So Rich", a seminal historic preservation book, is published.
1966 National Historic Preservation Act passed. Establishes the National Register of Historic Places and provides, through Section 106, for the protection of preservation-worthy sites and properties threatened by federal activities.
1966 - Other segment of the National Historic Preservation Act This act also created the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation and directs that each state appoint a State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO).
1966 Section 4(f) of the Department of Transportation Act provides protection to parkland, wildlife refuges, and other preservation-worthy resources in building national roads.
1966 - Other part of Section 4(f) of Dept. of Transportation Act Unlike parkland and wildlife refuges, however, privately-owned historic sites, as well as those in public ownership are protected by Section 4(f).
1967 The planning profession reaches its 50th anniversary with a celebratory conference in Washington D.C. Many of the earliest practitioners and founders of the profession attended together with eminent leaders of other professions.
1967 The "(Louis B) Wetmore Amendment" - final phrase in the 1938 AIP declaration of purpose - tied it to the arrangement and regulation of land use. Purpose = to broaden AIP scope and membership by bringing "social planners" and "physical planners" together.
1968 Intergovernmental Relations Act of 1968. The Office of Management and Budget issues Circular A-95 requiring state and substate clearninghouses to review/comment on federally assisted projects to foster coordination among the three levels of government.
1968 Jones v. Mayer - racial barriers cannot affect the acquisition of property.
1969 Ian McHarg publishes "Design with Nature", tying planning to the natural environment.
1969 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Requires an "environmental impact statement" for every federal or federally-assisted state or local major action that might significantly impact the environment.
1969 Mel Scott publishes "American City Planning Since 1890". Reissued in 1995 by the APA.
1970 First "Earth Day", January 1st.
1970 Federal Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Established to administer main provisions of the Clean Air Act of 1970 (CAA).
1970 The Miami Valley (Ohio) Regional Planning Commission Housing Plan is adopted. The first such plan in the nation to allocate low- and moderate-income housing on a "fair-share" basis.
1971 AIP adopts the Code of Ethics for professional planners.
1971 James v. Valtierra. The US Supreme Court upheld an amendment to the California constitution mandating a referendum on all housing projects because an intent to racially discriminate could not be found.
1971 Calvert Cliffs Coordinating Committee v. US Atomic Energy Commission. US Supreme Court found that an approval for a nuclear power plant was not properly granted because it violated NEPA. The decision solidified the place of NEPA in the development world.
1972 Coastal Zone Management Act adopted.
1972 General revenue sharing inaugurated under the US State and Local Fiscal Assistance Act.
1972 In Golden v. Planning Board of Ramapo, New York high court allows the use of performance criteria as a means of slowing community growth.
1972 Demolition of St. Louis's notorious Pruitt-Igoe Project symbolizes a nationwide move away from massive, isolating, high-rise structures to a more humane form of public housing architecture: low-rise, less isolated, dispersed.
1973 Endangered Species Act. Authorized Federal assistance to state and local jurisdictions to establish conservation programs for endangered plant and animal species.
1973 The Oregon Supreme Court rules in Fasano v. Board of County Commissioners of Washington County that all zoning and rezoning must be consistent with applicable comprehensive plans.
1974 The Housing and Community Development Act replaces the categorical grant with the block grand as the principal form of federal aid for local community development.
1974 The US Supreme Court rules in Village of Belle Terre v. Boraas that limiting residents of housing units to related individuals was a legitimate use of the police power, eliminating many fundamental civil rights challenges to local regulations.
1975 Cleveland Policy Plan Report shifts emphasis from traditional land-use planning to advocacy planning.
1976 Historic Preservation Fund established.
1977 First exam for AIP membership conducted.
1978 Penn Central Trans Co v. City of NY. Court upholds NYC's Landmark Preservation Law for Grand Central Terminal. The Court found that barring some development of air rights was not a taking when the interior of the property could be put to lucrative use.
1978 American Institute of Planners (AIP) and American Society of Planning Officials (ASPO) merge to become American Planning Association (APA).
Created by: jlongabaugh