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History 105 - Exam 1

Alexander the Great King of Greek Kingdom Macedon. Created Largest Empire of ancient world. Undefeated in battle.
Archon Greek word for ruler/Lord
Ashur was the second son of Shem, the son of Noah. Chief deity of the Assyrians, he stood behind the king and brought victory in war. Also the name of an important Assyrian religious and political center. Name of City State
Aton Worship of monotheistic god associated with the 18th dynasty of egypt
Cedar wood that comes from several different trees that grow in different parts of the world, and may have different uses
Cuneiform is one of the earliest known systems of writing. The original Sumerian script
Draco Authored the first code of Athenian Laws, noted for its harshness in 621 B.C,
Ephors were leaders of ancient Sparta and shared power with the Spartan kings. Five ephors were elected annually, who "swore on behalf of the city", while the kings swore for themselves
Hektemoroi a set of laws instituted by the Athenian lawmaker Solon (c. 638 BC–558 BC) in order to rectify the widespread serfdom and slaves that had run rampant in Athens by the 6th century BC, by debt relief.
Horus Bird Head. is one of the oldest and most significant deities in ancient Egyptian religion, who was worshipped from at least the late Predynastic period through to Greco-Roman times
Keel Technological innovation that led to the transformation of the Phoenician trade and shipping system
Lycurgus was the legendary lawgiver of Sparta, who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi
Middle Kingdom history of ancient Egypt between about 2050 BC and 1650 BC, stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth DynastyDuring this period, Osiris became the most important deity in popular religion.[1]
Nefertiti was the Great Royal Wife (chief consort) of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten. Nefertiti and her husband were known for a religious revolution, in which they worshiped one god only
Papyrus The writing material prominent in the early sea trade of the Phoenician Cities.
Pericles associated with teh fojur stages of athenian democratizaiton and reform. was arguably the most prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age— specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars
Phoenicia an ancient Semitic civilization situated on the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent and centered on the coastline of modern Lebanon and Tartus Governorate in Syria. All major Phoenician cities were on the coastline of the Mediterranean
Amen-Ra a local deity of Thebes. With the 11th dynasty. Amun acquired national importance, expressed in his fusion with the Sun god, Ra, as Amun-Ra
Arete excellence of any king.
Amenemhet I the first ruler of the Twelfth Dynasty, the dynasty considered to be the golden-age of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt. He ruled from 1991 BC to 1962 BC
Areopagus a big rock. it functioned as the high Court of Appeal for criminal and civil cases[2] Ares was supposed to have been tried here by the gods for the murder of Poseidon's son Alirrothio.
Assyria An empire characterized by policies of terror and deportations
Athenians linked ethnically, socially, and commercially with the Ionians.
Baal A god of Tyre. son of El, father god, and Astarte, fertility mother god. symbol of annual death and resurrection. Main worshiped God
Byblos attributed to the semi-legendary pre-Trojan War Phoenician historian Sanchuniathon, it was built by Cronus as the first city in Phoenicia
Cleisthenes created the Athenian units of social organization of Tribe, Trittyes, and Deme
Crete the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece
delian the leader of an alliance pf 140 city states
Deme the basic political unit introduced by CLeisthenes
Egypt/ Egyptians are the inhabitants and citizens of Egypt sharing a common culture and a dialect of Arabic.The population of Egypt is concentrated in the lower Nile valley
Ensi The :Leading Man"/ city-governor of Sumerian City state during its reputedly (quasi) democratic phase.
Helots were a subjugated population group that formed the main population of Laconia and Messenia (areas ruled by Sparta). according to Critias, they were "slaves to the utmost"
Hieroglyphics were a formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians that combined logographic and alphabetic elements. Egyptians used cursive hieroglyphs for religious literature on papyrus and wood.
Hyksos a people from West Asia who took over the eastern Nile Delta, ending the Thirteenth dynasty of Egypt and initiating the Second Intermediate Period.
Hammurabi the first king of the Babylonian Empire extending Babylon's control over Mesopotamia by winning a series of wars against neighboring kingdoms. the most famous law code of the very late Sumerian period, circa 1750 B.C. was named after him
Ikhnaton was a pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC. He is especially noted for abandoning traditional Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship centered on the Aten
Knossos is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and is considered Europe's oldest city
Leuctra a village in ancient Greece, in Boeotia, seven miles southwest of Thebes.It is primarily known today as the site of the important 371 BC Battle of Leuctra in which the Thebans, under Epaminondas, defeated the Spartans
megara a historic town and a municipality (pop. 36,924 in 2011) in West Attica, Greece
Mesopotamia is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system,
Minoan Civ. was centered on crete. Focused on Commerce. Conquered by Mycenaeans.
Mycenaean on mainland of greece. Established themsleves in fortified positions in elevated locations. Focused on warfare. conquered minoans.
New Kingdom an interlocking administrative and religious elite.
Nomes the egyptian administrative subdivision, approximating a 'county;.
Osiris an Egyptian god, usually identified as the god of the afterlife, the underworld and the dead. He was classically depicted as a green-skinned man with a pharaoh's beard, partially mummy-wrapped at the legs, wearing 2 ostrich feathers
Ostracism was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which any citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years
Peisistratus the first athenian reformer to introduce public works and national cults and festivals as part of a policy to diminish noble and clan power.
peloponnesian is a large peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece
Perioeci The "outdwellers" of spartan society, charged, for example, with commercial activitis believed beneath spartan dignity.
Personal Liberty the collateral for "one sixth men" loans. ex: if the loan was called in, personal liberty is what they lost.
one sixth men The concept of the hektemoroi or one sixth men was based on the accumulation of debt by the poor
Phalanx a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, sarissas, or similar weapons. The term is particularly (and originally) used to describe the use of this formation in Ancient Greek warfare,
Pharoah The title derived from the Egyptian term "Per Wer". is a title used in many modern. discussions of the rulers of all Ancient Egyptian dynasties. Links religious and political power.
Ra is the ancient Egyptian solar deity. By the Fifth Dynasty (2494 to 2345 BC) he had become a major god in ancient Egyptian religion, identified primarily with the midday sun
Seisachtheia a set of laws instituted by the Athenian lawmaker Solon (c. 638 BC–558 BC) in order to rectify the widespread serfdom and slaves that had run rampant in Athens by the 6th century BC, by debt relief.
Sigeum coastal town near troy. an ancient Greek city in the north-west of the Troad region of Anatolia located at the mouth of the Scamander (the modern Karamenderes River)
Solon Athhenian reformer associated with the outlawing of loans guaranteed or based on on0e's personal liberty. Also prohibited the export of wheat. Linked weath with political priv. and military responsibility. ending hektemoroi debt.
Sparta Military training begins at age 7. Spartan males may marry at 20, not live with wife till 30. Eligible for military service until age 60.
Sumeria southern region of Mesopotamia, where earliest cities aarsoe. Between tigris and euphrates rivers. Kingship was divine, descending from heaven. Kings replaced earlier rulers, the ensi. The reign of a king could well last thousands of years.
Thebes acutely concerned with defense, established themselves in elevated locations. Destroyed by Alexander the great.
Tyre an ancient seaport of Phoenicia: one of the great cities of antiquity, famous for its navigators and traders
Silver Mines Made athens rich
Tegea emergence of hoplite policy in spartan foreign affairs was demonstrated against them.
thasos Athens used league in a private quarrel after persian threat was over.
Theocracy Gov headed by gods
Thermopylae battle in 480 BC, the Greeks sent about 7000 soldiers to gaurd the pass, for two days they held off the Persians but on the 2nd day, a traitor led the persians through a secret pass so they could attack from behind. Most retreated except 300 of them.
Ur an important city-state of Sumeria
Zigurat temple tower of the acient assyrians and babylonians, has the form of a trraced pyramid of successively receding stories
400 in the reforms, solon created a new council to act as a steering committe for the assembly. the counsil had 400 members.
Field of reeds egyptian idea of heaven or paradise
Created by: codyzsherman