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Chapter 1

A First Look at the Body

abdominal quadrants dividing abdomen into four quadrants
abdominopelvic cavity inferior part of the ventral body cavity.
adhesion molecules allow cells of tissue to recognize one another and stick together.determine ability of particular dissolved substance and enter or leave cell-particularly for substances that carry electrical charge.
adipocytes cells derived from fibroblasts-interior is dominated by a droplet of fat-movement of fat between adipose tissues and bloodstream conttrolled by nervous and endocrine systems
adipose tissue specialized for storage of fat--functions as energy reserve,-fat cushions internal organs, reduces heat loss through skin and gives body its contours.
ADP energy depleted form of mitochondria
anatomical position subject is erect, facing the viewer, feet pointed ahead, arms at the sides, palms of hands turned forward
appendicular region consisting of the limbs or extremeties
ATP general chemical energy source for energy-requiring cellular prosses of mitochondria
axial region consists of the head, neck, and trunk
bilayer double layer of phospholipids-each cell has one-hydrophilic heads facing the extracellular fluid on one side and the cytoplasm on the other-hydrophilic tails of phospholipids point towards the interior of the membrane.
blood plasma fluid component containing salts; some organic solutes; disolved gases and proteins; formed elements, including erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes.
body cavities two major hollow internal spaces that enclose internal organs
bone marrow fills spaces of trabeculae
canaliculus radiating out at right angles to each Haversian canal are small channels that allow nutrients and oxygen to reach osteocytes and cellular wastes to be removed
cancellous bone spongy bone-consists of a meshwork of mineralized trabeculae with bone marrow filling the spaces
cardiac muscle makes up the walls of the heart and is responsible for circulating blood to all parts of the body
cartilage a strong, flexible, smooth material composed of collagen and chondroitin-in adults supports some soft tissues,
chondrocytes cells that cartilage is secreted from
chondroitin a tough, flexible material that is a major component of cartilage, one form of connective tissue
collagen giant, fibrous molecules that may be arranged in bundles or as a mesh
compact bone outer covering of bone- dense bone- surrounding a core of cancellous bone- composed of units called osteon
connective tissue from the mesoderm
connective tissue proper composes a loosely arranged structural framework for almost every tissue
cranial cavity within the skull, contains the brain, and the vertebral canal within the vertebral column which contains spinal cord and spinal roots
cuboidal epithelial cells are approximately as wide as they are tall
cytoplasm intracellular fluid- contains a number of characteristic organelles
cytoskeleton the scaffold of filaments within the cytoplasm that allow the cell to maintain a form and move
differentiation process in which unspecialized cells acquire specific cellular structures and become specialized to perform specific functions
directional terms way of decribing the relationships of individual structures and regions
ectoderm cells of embrio that lie outermost
elastin giant fibrous molecules, that may be arranged in bundles or mesh
endocrine glands formed by epithelial cells- secrete chemical messengers called hormones into the blood
endoderm cells of embryo that lie innermost
endoplasmic reticulum ER-an internal membrane system that contains proteins and lipids destined for various metaboli fates within the cell, for secretion to exterior, or for incorporation into the plasma membrane
epithelial tissue from the ectoderm and endoderm
erythrocytes red blood cells
exocrine glands formed by epithelial cells- secrete substances by way of ducts to the exterior
extrinsic membrane proteins less tightly attached and may be removed by chemical treatments that do not dissolve the membrane
fibroblasts characteristic cells that secrete intercellular materials
formed elements erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes
frontal section pass parallel to the midline and at right angles to the lane of the sagittal section- would divide the body into dorsal and ventral portions
glia support the neurons and maintain a favorable environment for their functions
glycoproteins proteins that strands of sugar molecules are attached to
Golgi apparatus closely stacked sacs of ER that serve as a sorting station for proteins sythesized by ribosomes attached to the ER- these proteins are labeled for various destinations in the cell
Haversian canal surrounded by an osteon- contains blood vessels and nerves
horizontal section (transverse) a cut at right angles to the midline and dividing the body into superior and inferior portions
hormones chemical messangers secreted by endocrine glands-in the blood
hyaluronic acid intercellular substance formed by connective tissues-forma a gel that cements cells together and acts as a cushion
intercellular material generated by connective tissue- large deposits of insoluble material.-secreted by characteristic cells called fibroblasts
intermediate filaments part of the cytoskeleton-allows cell to maintain a form and to move
intrinsic membrane proteins from plasma membrane- tightly associated with the membrane and in some cases span it from one side to the other
lacunae spaces between the lamellae--occupied by osteocytes
lamellae concentric rings of mineralized intercellular substance surrounding the Haversian canal
leukocytes white blood cells
ligaments structures that hold joints together-composed mainly of bundles of collagen and elastin fibers all with the same orientation
mesoderm unspecialized cells of the embryo--comes to lie between the ectoderm and endoderm
microfilaments part of the cytoskeleton that allow the cell to maintain a form and move
microtubules part of the cytoskeleton that allow the cell to maintain a form and move
midline a cut made in the middle of the body from head to toes
midsagittal section if the body were sliced into equal right and left halves--would pass through the sagittal plane along the midline of the body
mitochondria rod-like structures consisting, of a double-bilayer membrain--sites of the reactions of terminal oxidative metabolism--energy from oxidation of foodstuffs is applied to the synthesis of ATP--believed to evolved from bacteria that took up residence in prim
Neurons generate and conduct electrical impulses and communicate with other cells by way of chemical messages--divided from nervous tissue
nucleus contains genetic material (DNA), together with molecules that affect expression of specific parts of the genetic code--bound with double-bilayer membrane penetrated with porthole-like nuclear pores
organelles characteristic part of the cytoplasm--nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, Golgi aparatus, and mitochondria
osteoblasts type of osteocyte--synthesize bone
osteocytes bone cells--two types--osteoblasts and osteoclasts
osteons units that compose compact bone--surrounds a central Haversian canal
oxidative phosphorylation energy from oxidation of foodstuffs is applied to the synthesis of ATP, the general chemical energy source for energy-requiring cellular prosses, for ADP, and energy-depleted form of the same molecule
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