Busy. Please wait.

Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.

By signing up, I agree to StudyStack's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the email address associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know (0)
Know (0)
remaining cards (0)
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Bacterial STDs

Main reason for infertility in women ? * PID = from bacteria from an STD
Classification Based on STD Symptoms ? * Mucopurulent discharge - Chlamydia and Gono. Genital ulcers - Herpes...... Warts - HPV........ Pruritic lesions (mites or lice) - scabies ...... HIV symptoms
Neisseria general characteristics ? * G - Diplococci.... * is fastideous, and grows on a choccolate agar..... * Oxidase + = aerobic ..... * + on CTA
Neisseria classification based on a CTA ? * + glucose growth, and - with special agar, maltose, lactose, and sucrose
Clinical presentation ? * purulent discharge, often asymptomatic so why it spreads, and dysuria
Epidemiology of Gono. ? * increase after Vietnam war, infects more females than males, and 30% are carriers
Gono. rates by area/region ? * higher in the South and Midwest
Gonococcal Infections Sx ? * Urethritis --- Cervicitis --- Proctitis --- Pharyngitis --- Conjunctivitis (ophthalmia neonatarum)--- Epididymitis --- Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) --- Arthritis (usu in larger joints)
Gono. Virulence factors ? * Have Pili to attach .... * antigenic variations among the pili (lots of different pili types, so hard to get rid of naturally).... * Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) ...* have slip strain mispairing among OMP (outer mem. proteins)
One thing that Gono. does NOT have ? * A Capsule
Gono. Pathogenesis ? * get from sexual contact, and attaches due to their pili..... * invades nonciliated columnar epi mucus membranes and cause discharge.... * can spread in Bd to get arthritis..... * Damage due to inflam response
Gono. Immunity ? * No immunity .... * can get repeat infections
Lab Diagnosis of Gono ? * swab from cervix or urethra... * Don't refrigerate... * Make Gram Stains - men show G- with diplococci, women need to be confirmed with culture
Gono. Tmt = ? * Ceftriaxone (3rd generation cephalosporin) plus Azithromycin or Doxycycline is recommended today..... * Use a Combo therapy
Gono. Prevention = ? * safe sex, trace down contacts, treat partners, and screen high risk asymp. pts
Chlamydia basics ? * see numerous neutrophils but no evidence of Gram-negative diplococci..... * Obligate intracellular parasites - unable to make ATP ....* Two Types: Elementary body: infectious -- Reticulate body: noninfectious
Chlamydia Classification ? * Chlamydia trachomatis - strains ABC show Trachoma..... *Ones we see the most are strains D-K - nongono. urethritis
Chlamydia Pathogenesis ? * attach to columnar epi cells -- * change from nonreplicating Reticulate bodies to Infectious Elementary Bodies.... * They then Lyse cell and spread Elementary Bodies
Diseases of C. trachomatis (A, B, & C) Blinding Trachoma ? * See Chronic keratoconjunctivitis develops if untreated can progress to conjunctival and corneal scarring and eventual blindness... * eye lashes are trapped under eye lid.... * spread p to p by fomites, and seen usually in Africas and Mid. East
Lab Dx and DOC for ABC = ? * Demonstation of chlamydial inclusions in conjunctival scrapings by Giemsa stain or DFA stain........ * Azithro. or a topical Tetracycline
Diseases of C. trachomatis (D-K) ? * Most common reportable sexually transmitted disease in US..... * Males: urethritis ..... *Females: mucopurulent cervicitis, salpingitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease ..... * Neonate: inclusion conjunctivitis and pneumonia
Chlamydia Epidemiology ? * 1 in 10 men have it, effects women more than men, women also more asymptomatic than in men, and has been steadily increasing..... * Regions: top in South and Midwest
Chlamydia and Dx and DOC ? * Direct antigen testing by EIA or ELISA..... * top today = Nucleic acid amplification test (Gen-Probe Aptima 2) ..... * Doxy or Azithro.
Complications of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Infections ? * PID, increase infertility, spont. abortions, and ectopic preg.
Why teen girls are though to have a greater risk of infection ? * Columnar epithelial cells from the endocervix are present on the ectocervix. Both gonorrhea and chlamydia preferentially infect these cells.
Diseases of C. trachomatis (L1, L2, and L3) ? * Get Lymphogranuloma venereum ..... * see in africas and caribbean..... * form an ulcer on the genitalia and see lymph node blockage
Vaginitis basics ? * Vaginal discharge and the associated vulvar itching are the most common reasons for a woman to seek gynecological care...... * See odor, itching, discharge, discomfort
Vaginitis infectious causes ? * Bacterial vaginosis --- Candida vulvovaginosis --- Trichomoniasis
Vaginitis Lab Dx ? * based on analysis of vaginal discharge, pH shift above 4..... * KOH Test - to see if Candida and see a fishy odor produced
Bacterial Vaginosis (BV): Diagnostic Criteria ? * ph: above 4.5..... * thin vaginal discharge.... * release of fishy odor with KOH.... * see Clue Cells (tiny gram - dicplococci) different than normal Gram + normal flora
Etiologic agents of BV ? * defined as a disruption of the ecology of the vaginal microflora and characterized by a shift in microbial species from Lactobacillus species to Gardnerella vaginalis and anaerobic Gram -commensals
BV transmission ? * Not sexually transmitted
Candida Vulvovaginitis basics ? * Most common cause of non-bacterial Vaginitis .... * can get with risks such as DM,ABx Use, highe estrogen lvls, and immunosuppression
Candida Vulvovaginitis Cx presentation ? * Vulvar pruritis, dysuria, Erythema of vulva and vag mucosa -- Edema of vulva -- May be little or no discharge -- Discharge when present is white, thick, adherent, & clumpy (curd-like) -- Little or no odor.....* Basically looks like vag thrush
Candida Vulvovaginitis DOC ? * Metronidazle
Candida Vulvovaginitis etiology and patho. ? * mostly from Candida albicans ...... * Pathogenesis – due to overgrowth of Candida → decreased vaginal pH
Diagnosing Vaginitis ? * go in a get a Dx of the specimen... * Gram Stain to see which one is causing this
Vaginitis Tmt = ? * Fluconazole (oral) -- Miconizole (topical) – Monistat -- Clotimazole (topical) – Gyne-Lotrimin
Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis) basics ? * Malodorous/Bad Odor, frothy discharge associated with burning, itching and chafing.....* Diffuse vaginal erythema
Tricho. Dx and Tmt = ? * Dx = use a wet mount ....... * DOC: Metronidazle
Treponema General Characteristics ? (2ndary syph.) * very thin G - rods that contain flagella at polar ends inside the membrane, and move by rotary/spinning... * have to see it in a dark field....* lack endotoxin
Treponema Classification ? * Treponema pallidum --> Syphilis ..... * these are all non-STDs and seen in endemic areas
Syphilis basics ? * classically STD, and even from mother to fetus..... * usu presents as single, non-painful genital ulcer (primary)..... * has several stages to ...* 2ndary = skin rash satge
Syphilis Epidemiology ? * pretty low, but have seen a small increase due to homosexual sex in US..... * low incidence in WV, and high in South.....* One that we see More MALES infected for once, and in Af. Americans
Syphilis Staging ? * primary exposure from another infected individual....* they multiply and cause and ulceration, and we get healing...* some after healing stops there forever....* Secondary = Skin lesions/rash.....* Tertiary = hypersens. RxN see Gumas and CNS involvement
Primary Syphilis ? * Usually a single ulcer develops after ~3 weeks.....* painless....* non tmt = 1/2 go on to 2ndary
Secondary Syphilis ? * usu a skin rash, on soles/palms.... * 2/3 develop latent syphilis
Tertiary Syphilis ? * Develops in about 15-20% of latent syphilis cases ....... * Gummas develop in skin or other tissues, characterized by granuloma formation
Can cause warts that look like HPV ? * Condylomata lata (not acuminata) – warts due to Treponema pallidum (secondary syphilis)
Syphilis Lab Dx ? * Treponema pallidum cannot be grown in culture ..... * Direct visualization with a Wet mount - must use dark field microscopy
Syphilis Serology ? * Serology – NONSPECIFIC = Wasserman antibody reacts on a RPR and VDRL Tests...... * If + tests , have to do a SPECIFIC Test to confirm = Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody (FTA) test
Syphilis TmT = ? * DOC: Benzathine penicillin G
Syphilis Prevention ? * condoms, treat contacts, serology at marriage/pregnancy
Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi) * soft sore, tends to bleed easily..... * Lab Dx: "School of fish look" and gram Staining that needs a special media ...... * See in Africas and Caribbeans, so look for travel Hx
Ectoparasites = ? * mites/bugs in pubic area ......* Pubic lice (Phthirus pubis) and Scabies (Sarcoptes scabiei)
Ectoparasite CxSx ? * See itchy, red papules all over the pubic area due to burrowing in the skin..... * can see in between the fingers also
Ectoparasite Dx = ? * Examine hair for nits/adult bugs for crabs ....* Scrappings + KOH Wet Mount for scabies (allows to dissolve cellular debry to see the bugs)
** Look at the Chart in the Lec. for a good summary chart **
Created by: thamrick800