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2016-2017 PHS Unit 1

History and Trends in Healthcare

Ancient Times Illness/disease caused by supernatural spirits and demons
Ancient Egyptians Earliest people to maintain health records
Ancient Egyptians Mummified corpses showed signs of arthritis, kidney stones and arteriosclerosis
Ancient Chinese Treat whole body by cursing spirits and nourishing the body; recorded herbal medications; used acupuncture to treat pain
Ancient Greeks Illness was result of natural causes; believed in disease prevention; studied effects of disease and the human body
Hippocrates "Father of Medicine"
Hippocrates Organized disease by signs and symptoms
Hippocrates Created high standards of ethics used by physicians (Hippocratic Oath)
Sign Objective patient observation
Symptom Subjective patient observation
Sign Fever
Symptom Pain
Sign Swollen ankle
Symptom Nausea
Ancient Romans Established hospitals (for injured soldiers)
Ancient Romans Developed public sanitation systems (aqueducts for clean water, sewers for waste)
Dark Ages Emphasis on saving soul and study of medicine prohibited
Middle Ages Bubonic plague killed 75% of population in Europe and Asia
Arab physician Rhazes Began using animal gut for suture material
Renaissance The rebirth of science & medicine; dissection of the human body began
Leonardo DaVinci Studied corpses and drew the human body more realistically
Printing Press Allowed knowledge to be spread
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek Invented the microscope
Ambroise Pare Father of modern Surgery
William Harvey Described circulation of blood to/from the heart
Ambroise Pare Used ligatures to bind arteries to stop bleeding
Gabriel Fahrenheit Invented 1st mercury thermometer
Benjamin Franklin Invented bifocals
Benjamin Franklin Discovered colds could be passed from person to person
Edward Jenner Developed smallpox vaccination
Rene Laennec Invented the stethoscope
Florence Nightingale Founder of modern nursing; started nursing schools
Robert Koch Father of microbiology; developed way to grow bacteria on culture plates
Ignaz Semmelweiss Encouraged hand-washing
Gregory Mendel Established principles of heredity (traits can be passed from parents to children)
Louis Pasteur Discovered that microorganisms cause disease and how to kill them (pasteurization of milk)
Wilhelm Roentgen Discovered x-rays
Joseph Lister First doctor to use antiseptic during surgery
Sigmund Freud Formed the basis for psychiatry and psychology
Clara Barton Founded the American Red Cross
Sir Alexander Fleming Discovered penicillin
Jonas Salk Discovered polio vaccination
Crick and Watson Described DNA structure
HIPAA Ensures privacy of patient information
Healthcare plans (insurance/Medicare/Medicaid) Help pay cost of healthcare
Superbug Drug-resistant bacteria
Bioterrorism Using pathogens as weapons
Legalized euthanasia Physician-assisted suicide
Geriatric care Care for elderly
OBRA Omnibus Reconciliation Act
Omnibus Reconciliation Act (OBRA) Regulates long-term healthcare facilities
Cost containment Control costs while achieving maximum benefits
Telemedicine Using video, audio and computer systems to provide medical services
Diagnostic Related Group (DRG) Classifying patients with certain disease in one payment group
DRG Diagnostic Related Group
Complementary and Alternative Methods (CAM) Non-traditional medical therapies
CAM Complimentary and Alternative Methods
Complementary Medicine Used WITH traditional therapies
Alternative Medicine Used INSTEAD of traditional therapies
Integrative Care Healthcare providers use both traditional and CAM therapies
CRAAP An acronym to help assess credibility of health information.
CRAAP Currency. Relevance, Authority, Acceptance, Purpose
Health Literacy Understanding health information and knowing how to use the information to stay healthy and access the healthcare system.
Poor health literacy Have poorer health outcomes, more hospitalizations and cost the healthcare system more money.
Currency When was the information published (or last reviewed/edited).
Relevance Is the information related to and in-depth enough on your topic?
Authority Was the health information written or reviewed by a healthcare professional?
Accuracy Was the information based on facts? Were cites referenced or was there a bibliography?
Purpose Who funds the publication (website)? What is the purpose of the website?
AND Boolean operative. Both search terms MUST be in the article for the search to bring forward the article.
OR Boolean operative. One or the other search terms must be in the article for the search to bring forward the article
NOT Boolean operative. Removes articles from the search that contain the search term after the operative NOT.
( ) parentheses Boolean operative. Searches the search term in the parentheses first
Created by: vorachekt