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Geography terms

Hodge class/ social studies class twu

Aryan From the Sanskrit Arya(noble)a named applied to an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language and who moved into Northern India from the Northwest. Although a language -related term, Aryan has assumed additional meanings, especially racial ones.
Atmosphere The earths envelope of gases that rest on the oceans and land surface and penetrates the open spaces spaces within soils. This layer of nitrogen (78 percent, oxygen (21 percent) and traces of other gases is the densest at the earths surface and thins with
Austrasia New name for the western Pacific Rim where a significant regional realignment is now taking place. Includes rapidly-developing countries and parts of countries and parts if countries lining the Pacific from Japan's Hokkaido in the north to New Zealand
Autocratic An autocratic government holds absolute power, rule is often by one person small group of persons who control the country by despotic means.
Balkanization The fragmentation of a region into smaller, often hostile political units.
Barrio Term meaning "neighborhood" in Spanish. Usually refers to an urban community in a Middle or South American city; also applied to low-income, inner-city concentrations of Hispanics in such southwestern U.S. cities as Los Angeles.
Buffer Zone - A set of countries separating ideological or political adversaries. Asia,Afghanistan, Nepal, and Bhutan were parts of a buffer zone between British and Russian-Chinese imperial spheres. Thailand was a buffer state between British and French colonial dom
Cartel an international syndicate formed to promote common interests in some economic sphere through the formulation of joint pricing policies and the limitation of market options for consumers. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a c
Cartography The art and science of making maps, including data compilation, layout, and design. Also concerned with the interpretation of mapped patterns.
Caste system The strict social segregation of people-specifically in India's Hindu society -on the basis of ancestry and occupation.
Cay Pronounced kee. A low-lying small island usually composed of coral and sand. Often part of an island chain such as the Florida Keys or the Bahamas archipelago.
Charismatic Personal qualities of certain leaders that enable them to capture and hold the popular imagination to secure the allegiance and even the devotion of the masses.
Climate the long-term conditions (over at least 30 years) of aggregate weather over a region, summarized by averages and measures of variability; a synthesis of the succession of weather events we have learned to expect at any given location.
Federal state A political framework wherein a (more powerful) central government represents the various entities (like states/provinces) within a nation-state. These share common interests, such as defense, foreign affairs, and the like. The various smaller Entities
Fertile Crescent Crescent-shaped zone of productive lands extending from the southeastern Mediterranean coast through Lebanon and Syria to the alluvial lowlands of Mesopotamia (in Iraq). Once more fertile than today, this is one of the world's great source areas of ag
Hegemony the political dominance of a country (or even a region) by another country. The former Soviet Union's postwar grip on Eastern Europe, which lasted from 1945-1990, was a classic example.
High seas Areas of the oceans away from land, beyond national jurisdiction, open and free for all to use.
Hinterland literally, "country behind," a term that applies to a surrounding area served by an urban center. That center is the focus of goods and services, produced for its hinterland and is its dominant urban influence as well. In the case of a port City, the
Immigrant A person migrating into a particular country or area; an in-migrant.
Imperialism the drive toward the creation and expansion of a colonial empire and, on established its perpetuation.
Isthmus a land bridge a comparatively narrow link between larger bodies of land. Central America forms such a link between North and South America.
Juxtaposition Contrasting places in close proximity to one another.
Latitude Lines of latitude are aligned east-west across the globe, from 0° latitude at the equator to 90° north and south latitude at the poles. Areas of low latitude, therefore, lie near the equator in the tropics; high latitudes are those in the north polar (Ar
Delta alluvial lowland at the mouth of a river, formed when the river deposits its alluvial load on reaching the sea. Often triangular in shape-hence the use of the Greek letter whose symbol is triangle
Plate tectonics Plates are bonded portions of the earth's mantle and crust, averaging 60 m/100 km in thickness. More than a dozen such plates exist, most of continental proportions, and they are in motion. Where they meet one slides under the other, crumpling the surfa
Push-pull concept The idea that migration flows are simultaneously stimulated by conditions in the source area, which tend to drive people away, and by the perceived attractiveness of the destination.
Relief Vertical difference between the highest and lowest elevations within a particular area.
Scale Representation of areal-world phenomenon at a certain level of reduction or generalization. In cartography, the ratio of map distance to ground distance; indicated on a map as bar graph, representative fraction, and/or verbal statement
Sharecropping Relationship between a large landowner and farmers on the land wherein the farmers pay rent for the land they farm by giving the landlord a share of the annual harvest
Shifting agriculture Cultivation of crops in recently cut and burned tropical forest clearings, soon to be abandoned in favor of newly cleared nearby forest land. Also known/as slash-and-burn agriculture.
State a politically organized territory that is administered by a sovereign government and is recognized by a significant portion of the international community. A state must also contain a permanent resident population, an organized economy, and a functioni
Steppe semiarid grassland; short-grass prairie. Also, the name given to the semiarid climate type
Subsistence - Existing on the minimum necessities to sustain life; spending most of ones time in pursuit of survival.
Terracing The transformation of a hillside or mountain slope into a step-like sequence of horizontal fields for intensive cultivation
Theocracy A state whose government is under the control of a ruler who is deemed ~o be divinely guided or under the control of a group of religious leaders (ex. Massachusetts Bay Colony) The opposite of the theocratic state is the secular state.
Time-space convergence The increasing nearness of places that occurs as modem transportation breakthroughs progressively reduce the time-distance between them.
Transculturation Cultural borrowing that occurs when different cultures of approximately equal complexity and technological level come into close contact
Tsunami A seismic (earthquake-generated) sea wave that can attain gigantic proportions arid cause coastal devastation.
Urban (metropolitan) area the entire built up, non-rural area and its population including the most recently constructed suburban appendages. Provides a better picture of the dimensions and population of such an area than the delimited municipality (central city) that forms it
Water table when precipitation falls on soil, some of the water is drawn downward through pores in the soil and rock under force of gravity Below the surface it reaches a level where it can go no further then it joins water already saturated the rock completely.
Windward the exposed, upwind side of a topographic barrier that faces the winds that flow across it.
Contiguous importance to geographers that means, literally, to be in. contact with, adjoining, or adjacent. Sometimes we hear the continental (conterminous) United State minus Alaska referred to as contiguous. Alaska is not contiguous to these "lower 48" states Beca
Continental drift the slow movement of continents controlled by the processes associated with plate tectonics.
Cultural diffusion the process of spreading and adoption of cultural element, from ~its place of origin across a wider area
Deciduous A deciduous tree loses its leaves at the beginning of winter or the start of the season.
Devolution The process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the central government.@
Ecology Strictly speaking, this refers to study of the many interrelationships between all forms of life and the natural environments in which they have evolved and continues to develop.@
The study of ecosystems focuses on the interactions between specific organisms and their environments. See all cultural ecology.@
Ecumene The habitable portions of the earth's surface where permanent human settlements
Emigrant a person migrating away from a country or area; an out-migrant.@
Erosion a combination of gradational forces that shape the earth’s surface landforms, running water, wind action, and the force of moving Ice combine to war away soil and rock. Human activities often speed erosional processes. Such as through the destruction of n
Escarpment A cliff or steep slope; frequently marks the edge of a plateau.@
Estuary the widening mouth of a river as it reaches the sea. An estuary forms when the
European Union An economic and political union-currently including 27 Western and Eastern
EU cont has a central European bank, and has adopted a common currency, the euro. (Some nations have opted not to use the euro, ex: UK and Denmark.) It’s controlling bodies elected/appointed by individual member citizens/governments. Member states maintain indivi
Leeward the protected or downwind side of a topographic barrier with respect to the flow across it. @
Longitude Map lines at angular distance (0° to 180°) east or west as measured from the prime
Mercantilism protectionist policy of European states during the 'sixteenth to the eighteenth
Mestizo root of this word is the Latin for mixed; it means a person of mixed white and
Migration A change in residence intended to be permanent, See also forced, internal
Monsoon Refers to the seasonal reversal of wind ( and moisture) that flows in certain parts of
wet monsoon occurs in the hot summer months, which produce onshore winds that bring large amounts of rainfall. (The air-pressure differential over land and sea is the triggering mechanism.) Monsoons make their greatest regional impact in the coastal and near-coastal
Nation Legally a term encompassing all the citizens of a state (ex: Americans), it also has
Nation cont Most definitions now tend to refer to a group of tightly-knit people
Natural resource Any valued element of the environment; includes minerals, water,
Nautical mile by international agreement, the nautical mile-- the standard measure at sea is,
Oasis an area, small or large, where the supply of water permits the transformation of the
Oasis cont It may also encompass a densely populated corridor along a major river where river
Occidental occidental originates from the Latin for Fall or the setting of the sun in the west: occidental therefore means western.(Europeans etc)@
Oriental the root of the word oriental is from the Latin for rise. Thus it has to do with the direction in which one sees the sun rise the east: oriental therefore means eastern (Asians)@
Fjord Narrow, steep-sided, elongated, and inundated costal valley deepened by glacier ice that has since melted away, leaving the sea to penetrate. (Most associated with Sweden & Finland)
Demography The interdisciplinary study of population especially birth rates and death rates,growth patterns longevity migration and related characteristics.
Green Revolution The successful recent development of higher yield,fast-growing varieties of rice and other cereals in certain developing countries. This led to increased production per unit area and a temporary narrowing of the gap between populations.
Gross national product (GNP) The total value of all goods and services produced in country during a given year.
Monotheism The belief in. and worship of a single god.@
Mulatto A person of mixed African (black) and European (white) ancestry.@
Pacific Rim far-flung group of countries and parts of countries extending clockwise on the map from New Zealand to Chile sharing the following criteria 1 they face the Pacific 2 they evince relatively high levels of economic development, industrialization, and u
Pandemic an outbreak of a disease that spreads world-wide. (The Black Death)
Pangaea A vast, singular landmass consisting of most of the areas of the present continents including the America, Eurasia, Africa, Australia, and Antarctica which existed until near the end of the Mesozoic era when plate divergence and continental drift broke
Selva tropical rainforest
Per capita Capita means individual, Income, production, or some other measure is often given per individual.
Pilgrimage A journey to a place of great religious significance by an individual or by a group of people (ex.: Mecca for the Muslims).
Savanna tropical grassland containing widely spaced trees
Peninsula a comparatively narrow, finger-like stretch of land extending from the main landmass into the sea. Ex: Florida and Korea
Peon (peon) Term used in Middle and South America to identify people who often live in serfdom to a wealthy landowner; landless peasants in continuous indebtedness.
Created by: malday17