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Stack #148176

chapter 6 skeletal ICTC

QuestionAnswer
What are the functions of the skeleton? provide framework that supports the body, protect internal organs from mechanical injury, contains and protects red bone marrow, provides storage site for excess calcium
What are osteocytes? bone cells
What is the matrix of bones made of? calcium salts and collagen
Is the matrix living or non living? non living
What bone tissue looks solid, is precisely structured, and is made of osteons and haversian systems? compact bone
What are microscopic cylinders of bone matrix with osteocytes in concentric rings around central haversian canals? haversian system
What contains blood vessels and osteocytes that are in contact with one another through canaliculi in the matrix? haversian canals
What type of bone tissue has visible cavities with osteocytes, matrix, and blood vessels present but not arranged in a haversian system? spongy bone
What is contained in the cavity of spongy bone? red bone marrow
What does red bone marrow produce? red blood cells, platelets, and 5 kinds of white blood cells
Where are long bones in the body? arms, legs, hands, and feet
What is the shaft of the long bone? diaphysis
What is the diaphysis made of? made of compact bone and is hollow forming a canal within the shaft
What does the canal of the diaphysis contain? yellow bone marrow
What is the end of the long bone called? epiphyses
What is the epiphyses made of? made of spongy bone covered with a thin layer of compact bone
Where are short bones? wrists and ankles
Where are flat bones? ribs, shoulder blades, hip bones, and craial bones
Where are irregular bones found? vertebrae and facial bones
What bone types are made of spongy bones and covered with a thin layer of compact bone? short, flat, and irregular bones
what covers joint surfaces of bones and provide a smooth surface? articular cartilage
What is the fibrous connective tissuemembrane whose collagen fibers merge with those of tendons and li nts that attach to the bone? periosteum
What is the skeleton first made of? cartilage that is gradually replaced by bone
What is the bone matrix produced by? osteoblasts
what is ossification? production of bone matrix
Where does ossification begin? in the center of ossification in each bone
what tissue makes up cranial and facial bones in the embryo? fibrous connective tissue
What occurs in the third month of development of the embryo? fibroblasts become more specialized and differentiate into osteoblasts which produce bone matrix
What happens at the center of ossification? bone growth radiates outward as calcium salts are deposited in the collagen of the model of the bone
What is the epiphyses made of? made of spongy bone covered with a thin layer of compact bone
Where are short bones? wrists and ankles
Where are flat bones? ribs, shoulder blades, hip bones, and craial bones
Where are irregular bones found? vertebrae and facial bones
What bone types are made of spongy bones and covered with a thin layer of compact bone? short, flat, and irregular bones
what covers joint surfaces of bones and provide a smooth surface? articular cartilage
What is the fibrous connective tissue membrane whose collagen fibers merge with those of tendons and ligaments that attach to the bone? periosteum
What is the skeleton first made of? cartilage that is gradually replaced by bone
What is the bone matrix produced by? osteoblasts
what is ossification? production of bone matrix
Where does ossification begin? in the center of ossification in each bone
what tissue makes up cranial and facial bones in the embryo? fibrous connective tissue
What occurs in the third month of development of the embryo? fibroblasts become more specialized and differentiate into osteoblasts which produce bone matrix
What happens at the center of ossification? bone growth radiates outward as calcium salts are deposited in the collagen of the model of the bone
What are the fontanels? fibrous connective tissue remaining between the bones of the skull
What are the purposes for the fontanels? compression of baby's head during birth and permit the growth of the brain after birth
In long bones, where does growth occur after birth? epiphyseal discs
Between what ages does the epiphyseal disc close and what influences it? ages 16- 25 and is influenced by estrogen and testerone
what is a destroying cell? osteoclast
Specializes cells dissolve and reasorb the minerals of the bone matrix by a process called? resorption
How is the marrow canal formed? osteoclasts are very active in the embryonic long bones and they reabsorb bone matrix in the center if the diaphysis making the marrow canal
What is red bone marrow replaced with after birth? yellow bone marrow
What is yellow bone marrow made of? fat
Where does red bone marrow remain? in the spongy bone of short, flat , and irregular bones
What factors affect bone growth and maintenance? heredity, nutrition, hormones, and exercise
For bones, what does exercise mean? bearing weight - without this bones will lose calcium much faster than it is replaced
what gland produces growth hormone? anterior pituitary gland
What does growth hormone do? increases rate of mitosis of chondrocytes and osteoblasts and increases the rate of protein synthesis
What gland produces thyroxine? thryroid gland
What does thyroxine do? increases the rate of protein synthesis and increases energy production from all food types
What produces insulin and what is its purpose? pancreas, and it increases energy production from glucose
What gland produces parathyroid hormone? parathyroid gland
What is the purpose of the parathyroid gland? raises blood calcium level, increases the absorption of calcium by the small intestines and kidneys
What gland produces calcitonin? thyroid gland
What is the purpose of calcitonin? lowers blood calcium level
respectfully, what produces estrogen and testosterone and what are their purposes? ovaries and testes, promotes closure of the epiphyses of long bones and helps retain calcium in bones to maintain a strong bone matrix
What are the fontanels? fibrous connective tissue remaining between the bones of the skull
What are the purposes for the fontanels? compression of baby's head during birth and permit the growth of the brain after birth
In long bones, where does growth occur after birth? epiphyseal discs
Between whar ages does the epiphyseal disc close and what influences it? ages 16- 25 and is influenced by estrogen and testerone
what is a destroying cell? osteoclast
Specializes cells dissolve and reasorb the minerals of the bone matrix by a process called? resorption
How is the marrow canal formed? osteoclasts are very active in the embryonic long bones and they reabsorb bone matrix in the center if the diaphysis making the marrow canal
What is red bone marrow replaced with after birth? yellow bone marrow
What is yellow bone marrow made of? fat
Where does red bone marrow remain? in the spongy bone of short, flat , and irregular bones
What factors affect bone growth and maintenance? heredity, nutrition, hormones, and exercise
For bones, what does exercise mean? bearing weight - without this bones will lose calcium much faster than it is replaced
what gland produces growth hormone? anterior pituitary gland
What does growth hormone do? increases rate of mitosis of chondrocytes and osteoblasts and increases the rate of protein synthesis
What gland produces thyroxine? thryroid gland
What does thyroxine do? increases the rate of protein synthesis and increases energy production from all food types
What produces insulin and what is its purpose? pancreas, and it increases energy production from glucose
What gland produces parathyroid hormone? parathyroid gland
What is the purpose of the parathyroid gland? raises blood calcium level, increases the absorption of calcium by the small intestines and kidneys
What gland produces calcitonin? thyroid gland
What is the purpose of calcitonin? lowers blood calcium level
respectfully, what produces estrogen and testosterone and what are their purposes? ovaries and testes, promotes closure of the epiphyses of long bones and helps retain calcium in bones to maintain a strong bone matrix
What type of fracture has broken parts that are still in anatomical position and minimal tissue damage? simple(closed)
What fracture is where the broken end of the bone has been moved and it pierces the skin with extensive damage to surronding blood vessels, nerves, and muscles? compound(open)
What fracture does the bone split longitudinally and occurs more often in children? greenstick
Two or more intersecting breaks create several bone fragments are called? comminuted
The broken ends of a bone are forced into one another and many bone fragments may be created in this kind of fracture? impacted
When a bone breaks without apparent trauma, it is called? pathological(spontaneous)
What disease is characterized by excessive loss of calcium without sufficient replacrment? osteoporosis
toward the back dorsal
toward the front ventral
away from the midline/at the side lateral
toward the midline medial
closest to the point of attachment proximal
farthest from the point of attachment distal
a connective tissue made of chondrocytes in a protein matrix cartilage
a sac of synovial fluid that decreases friction between a tendon and a bone bursae
a fibrous connective structure that connects bone to bone ligament
what are the cells that make up fibrous connective tissue? fibroblasts
What is fibrous connective tissue most important characteristic? strength
What is the purpose of the periosteum in long bones? anchors structures and contains blood vessels that enter the bone itself and osteoblast if bone is damaged
rounded projection that enters into the formation of a joint condyle
rounded projection beyond a narrow neckline head
What area of attachment is a very large process? trochanter
what area of attachment is a ridge? crest
what area of attachment is a sharp promient projection? spine
meatus a tube shaped opening
foramen a hole
sinus a cavity or sponge
What forms the axis of the body and what does it contain? axial skeleton - skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
What supports the appendages and what does it contain? appendicular skeleton - arms, legs, shoulder, and pelvic girdle
stretching or tearing of the ligaments or joint? sprain
How many bones are in the body? 206
skull consists of how many cranial bones? 8
what are canial bones? frontal bone, left and right parietal, occipital, left and right temporal, sphenoid, and ethmoid
The skull contains how many facial bones? 14
what bone supports base of tongue? hyoid
forms the forehead and anterior part of the top of the skull frontal bone
forms the posterior top and much of the side walls of the skull parietal bones
on the side of the skull and contains the ear canl,middle ear cavity, and inner ear labyrinth temporal
forms lower. posterior part of the braincase occipital
large opening for the spinal cord and the two condyles foramen magnum
shaped like a bat, visible on the side of the skull between the frontal and temporal bones sphenoid
has a vertical projection called the crista galli that anchors the cranial meninges, forms the roof and upper walls of the nasal cavity, and upper part of the nasal septum ethmoid
immovable joints between the cranial bones sutures
only movable facial bone mandible
joint between mandible and temporal bone condyloid joint
forms the anterior portion of the hard palate, two upper jaw bones maxillae
these two bones form the bridge of the nose where they articulate with the frontal bone nasal bones
these two bones form the point of the cheek and articulates with the maixilla, frontal bone, and temporal bone zygomatic bone
at the medial side of each orbit, contains the lacrimal sac lacrimal bone
posterior portion of the hard palate palatine bones
forms the lower part of the nasal septum and articulates with the ethmoid bone vomer
scroll like bones that curl downward from the sides of the nasal cavities, help increase surface area of the nasal mucosa conchae
air cavities located in the maxillae, and frontal, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones paranasal sinuses
air cavities in the mastoid process of each temporal bone, they open into the middle ear mastoid sinus
three auditory bones within the middle ear cavity malleus, incus, and stapes
where are the cervical vertebrae located and how many are there? neck, 7
what is the first cervical vertebrae called and what is its purpose? atlas, supports skull and pivots
what is the second cervical vertebrae called and what is its purpose? axis, pivot, enables head to turn
articulates with the ribs on the posterior side thoracic vertebrae
how many thoracic vertebrae are there? 12
how many lumbar vertebrae are there? 5
largest and strongert bones of the spine, located in the small of the back lumbar vertebrae
permits the articulation of the two hip bones sacrum
what is the joint called that permits the articulation of the two hip bones? sacroiliac joints
how many fused vertebrae of the sacrum? 5
remnants of tail vertbrae with some muscles of the perinium attached to it coccyx
how many vertebrae of the coccyx? 4 or 5
continous tunnel lined with meninges within the bones that contain the spinal cord and protect it from mechanical injury vertebral canal
supporting part of the vertebrae body
what are discs made of? fibrous cartilage
direction of cervical curve forward
direction of thoracic curve backward
direction of lumbar curve forward
direction of sacral curve backward
protects lungs, liver, and heart rib cage
directly involved with functioning of respiratory system rib cage
three parts of the sternum manubrium, body, xiphoid process
rib cage consists of? 12 pairs of ribs and sternum
first 7 pairs of ribs true ribs
next 3 pairs of ribs false ribs
last 2 pairs of ribs floating ribs
all the ribs articulate posteriorly with? the thoracic vertebrae
attaches the arms to the axial skeleton shoulder girdle
bones of the shoulder scapula and clavicle
articulates laterally with the scapula clavicle
long bone of upper arm humerus
elbow is what kind of joint? hinge joint
forearm bones ulna and radius
bone on the thumb side radius
bone on little finger side ulna
carpals 8 small bones of the wrist
metacarpals 5 bones of the palm of the hand
phalanges bones of the fingers
articulate with the axial skeleton of the sacrum pelvic girdle
3 major parts of the hip bone ilium, ischium, pubis
two pubic bones articulate with one another at the? pubic symphysis
long bone of thigh femur
tarsals 7 bones in the ankles
metatarsals 5 long bones of each foot
phalanges bones of the toes
weight bearing bone of the lower leg tibia
kneecap patella
does not bear much weight for the lower leg fibula
calcaneus heel bone
where 2 bones meet or articulate joint
immovable joint synarthrosis
example of synarthrosis suture -fibrous connective tissue between bone surfaces - between cranial bones, between facial bones
slightly movable joint amphiarthrosis
example of amphiarthrosis synovial - disc of fibrous cartilage between bones - between vertebrae, between pubic bones
freely movable joint diathrosis
types of diathrosis joints ball and socket, hinge, condyloid, pivot, gliding, saddle
ball and socket movement in all planes, scapula and humerus, pelvic bone and femur
hinge movement in one plane, humerus and ulna, femur and tibia, between phalanges
condyloid movement in one plane with some lateral movement, temporal bone and mandible
pivot rotation, atlas and axis, radius and ulna
gliding side-to-side movement, between carpals
saddle movement in several planes, carpometacarpal of thumb
all diarthroses are what kinds of joints because they share similar structures? synovial
small sacs of synovial fluid between the joints and tendons bursae
inflammation if joint arthritis
kyphosis exaggerated thoracic curve - hunchback
lordosis exaggerated lumbar curve - swayback
abnormal lateral curvature scoliosis
Created by: wrighth on 2008-09-09



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