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Chapter 5

Musculoskeletal System

acetabulum femur to hip
acrominion scapula to clavicle
amphiarthrosis cartilage, some movement
ankle lower leg to bones of feet
articular cartilage cartilage at joint
articulation two bone join togetr to allow movement
atlas 1st vertebrae
axis 2nd vertebrae
bone hard connective tissue, skeleton
bone head round upper end
bone phagocyte ingest dead bone;
bursa sac; sunovial membrane; spaces between tendon and joints
calcaneus heel
calcium important for formation ofbone
cancelous bone spongy bone
cardiac muscle striated; heart; involuntary
carpus; carpal bone wrist
cartilage flexible connective
cartilaginous/intervertebral disk circular mass; between vertebrae
cervical vertibrae 7; neck
clavicle curved bone to scapula
coccyx end of vertebrae; 4 fused when baby
compact bone hard bone tightly woven
condylee round srface; end of bone
crest bony ridge
diaphysis long middle section of bone; shaft
diarthroses freely movable joint
dorsal vertibrae/ thoracic vertebrae 12; chest
elbow joint between upper arm and forearm; ulna
endosteu lining of medullary vacity
epiphyseal plate cartilage tissue replaced; calcifies; growth plate
ethmoid bone irregular bone; in face
ethmoid sinuses both sides of nasal cavity; between eye and sphenoid sinus
fascia fibrous tissue over muscles
femur long bone in thigh
fibula smallest bone in leg
fissure deep slit
flat bone cover certain areas; skull, scapula
fontanelle membranous section of infants skull; soft spot
foramen opening thorough bone
foramen magnum opening in occipital for spinal cord
fossa depression
frontal bone forehead
frontal sinuses sinus above eyes
humerus connects arm to scapula
ilium wide portion of hip
insertion attachment to movable bone
involuntary muscle/smooth/visceral digestive system; not striated;
irregular bone special shape to fit certain area; facial bones
ischium 1 of 3 fused bones of pelvis
joint joining of bones
lacrimal bone flat bone of face
lamina flart side of arch of vertebrae
ligament bone to bone
long bone bone with shaft
lumbar vertebrae 5 vertebrae; lower back
malleolus round protrusion of tibia/fibula; either side of ankle
mandible lower jaw
marrow connective tissue with medullary cavity; rich nutrients
mastoid process protrusion of temporal bone; behind ear
maxillary bone upper jaw
maxillary sinus either side of nasal cavity below eyes
medullary cavity center of bone that holds marrow
metacarpal bone between wrist and fingers
metaphysis long bone between epiphysis and diaphysis
metatarsal between arch and toes
muscle contractile; needed for mvoement
musculoskeletal system includes muscles and skeleton
nasal bones form bridge of nose
nasal cavity either side of nasal septum
neural canal space for spinal cord
nucleus pulposus fibrous; center of intervertebral disk
occipital bone lower portion of skull
olecranon elbow
origin where muscle attaches; stationary
osseous tissue connective; calcium salts
ossification hardening of bone
osteoblast form bone
osteoclast reabsorb bone
osteocyte bone cell
palatine bone hard palate and nasal cavity
parietal bone curve upper part of skull
patella sesamoid; kneecap
periosteum fibrous covering surface of bone
phalanges finger and toe
phosphorus important for bone formation
process bony outgrowth or projection
pubes anteroinferior portion of hip
pubic symphysis joining of pubic bones
radius shorter bone on forearm
rib 24 form chest wall
sacrum above coccyx; 5 fused
scapula flat bone; shoulder blade
sella turcica depression in sphenoid for pituitary gland
sesamoid bone in tendon over joint
short bone sqare shaped
sinus hollow cavity
skeleton bony framework
sphenoid bone base of skull
spenoid sinus above and behind nose
spinous process protrusion from center of arch
sternum midline of anterior thorax
striated muscle/voluntary control at will; skeletal muscle
styloid process peg shaped protrusion
sulcus groove in surface
suture joins to bones; fibrous membrane; skull
symphysis cartilaginous joint unite 2 bones
synarthrosis no movement
snovial fluid lubricate joints
synovial joint movable joint
tarsal arch of foot
temporal bone base and sides of skull
TMJ joint for temporal bone and mandible
tendone muscle to bone
thorax trunk; neck and abdomen
tibia large of two lower bones; shin
transverse process portrusion on vertebral arch
trochanter bony protrusion on upper end of femur
true ribs 7; attach to sterum and spine
tubercle bony eleveaition for ligament
tuberosity large elevation
ulna larger bone of forearm
vertebrae bony segments of spinal cord
vertebral body main portion of vertebrae
vitamin d important for bone formation
vomer flat bone; nasal septum
zygomatic bone cheek bone
acetabulo acetabulum
acromio end of scapula
ankylo bent crooked
arthro joint
brachi arm
burso bursa
calcaneo heel
calcio calcium
carpo wrist
cephalo head
cervico neck
chondro cartilage
condylo knob; knuckle
costo rib
cranio skull
dactylo fingers; toes
fascio fascia
femoro femur
fibro fiber
humero humerus
ilio ilium
ischio ischium
kypho hump;bent
lamino laamina
leiomyo smooth muscle
lumbo lumbar
maxillo upper jaw
metacarpo metacarpal
myo muscle
myelo spinal cord; marrow
osteo bone
pateelo knee
pedi; pedo foot
pelvi pelvis
phalango finger or toe
podo foot
pybo pubis
rachio spine
radio forearm bone
rhabdo rod shaped
rhabdomyo striated muscle
scapulo scapula
scolio curved
spondylo vertebrae
sterno sternum
synovo synovial membrane
tarso tarsus
teno;tendo;tedino tendon
tibio tibia
ulno ulna
vertebro vertebra
A-K above knee amputation
ASIS anterior auperior iliac spine
B bilateral
B-K below knee amputation
C1,C2 etc cervical vertebrae
Ca calcium
CTS carpal tunnel syndrome
D1 D2 etc dorsal vertebrae
DJD degenerative joint disease
DTR deep tendon refle
EMG electromyogram
Fx fracture
IM intramuscularly
L left
L1 L2 etc lumbar vertebrae
MCP metacarpophalangeal
NSAID nonsteroidal antiinflammartory drug
OA ostero arthritis
P phosphorus
PIP proximal interphalangeal joints
PSIS posterior superior iliac spine
R right
RA rheumatoid arthritis
ROM range of motion
T1 T2 etc thoracic vertebrae
TMJ temporomandibular joint
arthrography radiography of joint
arthroscopy exmination with instrument; inside of jiont
bone scane nuclear medicine image ofbone
chirpractor professional; align spinal column
densitometer measure bone density usin light n xrays
diskography image of disk by injection of medium in center
electromyogram image of muscular action using electrical currents
goniometer measures angles and ROM
myelography imagin of spinal cord
orthopedic surgeon emins, diagnoses, and treats musculoskeletal system
osteo path combines manipulativ treatment with therapeutic measures
podiatrist foot specialist
rheumatoid factor test detect rheumatoid arthritis
rheumatologist joint specialist
serum calcium test for Ca in blood
serum creatine phosphokinase active in muscle contration
serum phosphorus test for P in blood
tinel's sign pins and needs sensation; injured nerve tapped
uric acid test test acid content in urin; indicate gout
ankylosis stiffening of joint
arthralgia severe joint pain
arthritis inflammation of joint
atrophy waste away of tissue or organs; shrink
bony necrosis death of portions of bone
bunion inflamed bursa of foot joint
bursitis inflammation of bursa
calcar/spur bony projection growing out of bone
carpal tunnel syndrome pain in hand due to repetitive motion
chondromalacia softening of cartilage
closed fracture no open skin wound
colles fracture lower end of radius
comminuted fracture shattered bones
complex fracture part of bone displaced
complicated fracture extensive soft tissue repair needed
compound/ open fracture open skin wound
compression fraction vertebrae space compressed
contracture extreme resistance to stretching of muscle
crepitation noise made by rubbing bones together
degenerative arthritis erosion of cartilage
dislocation movement of joint out of normal position
dystonia abnormal tone of tissue
epiphysitis inflammation of epiphysis
exostosis abnormal bone growth capped by cartilage
flaccid without tone; relaxed
fracture break
gouty arthritis inflammation of joints; caused by uric acid crystals
greenstick fracture twistin of bone but no break
hairline fracture no bone separation
herniated disk protrusion of intervertebral disk into neural canal
hypertrophy abnormal increas in muscle size
hypotonia abnormal muscle tension reduction
impacted fracture fragment of one part of fracture driven into another tissue part
incomplete fracture does not go entirely through bone
kyphosis hunch back;abnoral posterior spine curvature
leiomyoma benign tumor of smooth muscle
leiomyosarcome malignant tumor of smooth muscle
lordosis abnormal anterior spine curve; sway back
muscular dystrophy degenerativedisorder affecting organs eventually
myalgia/ myodynia muscle pain
myeloma bone marrow tumor
myoma benign muscle tumor
myositis inflammation of muscle
ostealgia/osteodynia bone pain
osteoarthritis loss of cartilage
osteoma benign bone tumor
osteomyelitis inflammation of bone marrow
osteoporosis degenerative thinning of bone
osteosarcoma malignant tumor of bone
pathological fracture site of already damaged bone
phantom limb/pain pain felt by parallyzed/amputated
physcial therapy movement therapy to restored damaged areas
podagra pain in big toe
rhabdomyom benign tumor in striated muscle
rhabdomyosarcome malignant tumor in striated muscle
rheumatoid arthritis autoimmue disorder affecting connective tissue
rickets vit d deficiency
rigidity stiffness
rigor stiffening
sciatica pain in lower back from herniated disk
scoliosis lateral curve
sequestrum dead tissue separated from surrounding area
simple fracture no open wound
spasn involuntary muscle contraction
spastic tending to have spams
spina bifida deformity of spine; babies
spinal curvatur abnormal curve of spine
spondylolisthesis one vertebra misaligns with one below; slipped disks
sprain without dislocation; injury to joint
strain injury to muscle; overuse
subluxation partial dislocation
talipes calcaneus dormoity of heall; weakend calf
talipes valgus eversion of foot
talipesvarus inversion of foot
tendinitis inflammation of tendon
tetany long muscle contraction
tremor repetitive muscle contraction
amputation cutting off limb
arthrocentesis removal of fluid in joint
arthrodesis fusion of joint to stiffen
arthroplasty replacement of joint
bone grafting transplantate of bone from one site to another
bunionectomy removal of bunion
burssectomy removal of bursa
casting mold over body part to prevent movement
external fixation device device to hold limb in place outside
internal fixation device device to hold limb in place inside
laminectomy removal of part of vertebra disk
myoplasty reapid of muscle tissue
orthosis appliance used to immobilze movement of spine or limbs
osteoclasis breaking of bone to repair
osteoplasty replacement of bone
osteotomy cutting of bone
reduction return to normal position
prosthetic artificial device to substitiue misssing part
splinting immobilize body part
spondylosyndesis fusion of vertebrae
synovectomy removal of synovial membrane
tenotomy cutting of tendon
traction drag, pull, straighten by attachment of elastic
analgesic relieve pain
muscle relaxant relieve stiffness
NSAIDS reduce inflammation
narcotic similar to opium; relieve pain
Created by: cs3516